Exam 2

  1. The fetus becoems aware of sound during which type of auditory development? 
    Prenatal auditory development 
  2. The ear starts to develope during which week of development? 
    The third week 
  3. When does the human ear begin to function and when does the fetus start to respond to sounds outside of the womb?  
    At 26-28 weeks of gestation 
  4. The auditory system becomes adult-like by what age?
    12 years old
  5. The ear and auditory pathway receive and code sound and send it toward the brain for interpretation. 
    Sound encoding 
  6. During what auditory development does the child learn that sound has meaning and he can produce his own sound for communication?
    Postnatal auditory development 
  7. A skill that children learn to develop and fine tune. 
    Selective listening
  8. During which auditory development do children use selective listening?
    Postnatal auditory development 
  9. Differences between auditory behaviors of children and adults are observed in a ______________ setting. 
  10. Pure tone is the stimulus used for __________. 
  11. Broadband stimuli (speech or music) may be necessary for ______________. 
    children (younger than two years)
  12. At what age may the child be ready for the "beeps" we associate with adult hearing test? 
    2 1/2 to 3 years
  13. At what age might we see the response pattern of eye widening, startle, change in or cessation of activity?
    Birth to 7 months
  14. At what age might we see the response pattern of sound searching and sound localization behaviors? 
    7 months of age
  15. At what age might we see the response pattern of dropping a block in a bucket each time a sound is heard? Also at this age, the child will be developmentally "ready" to respond to a "beep." 
    2 1/2 to 3 years of age
  16. Developmental changes are also observed in the child's development of specific auditory skills which are?
    Detection, discrimination, identification, comprehension
  17. The most basic level of sound awareness. It can ve the presence or absence of sound in a baby's environment. Amplification is crucial for a HH child depending upon the hearing loss.
    Detection level
  18. __________ aspects of language such as rhythm, inflection, stress, prosody, and pitch that children master. 
  19. __________ aspects of speech occur afterwards and refer to phonemes, morphemes, and syllables. 
  20. A level during which children master suprasegmental aspects of language and segmental aspects of speech occur afterwards and refer to phonemes, morphemes, and syllables. 
    Discrimination level
  21. A level that contains identification, auditory memory, attention, and auditory closure.
    Identification level
  22. To point or label an item
  23. An essential ingredient of the identification level.
    Auditory memory
  24. The ability to focus on the person speaking.
  25. The ability to fill in a missing piece of a word or message. Example, "oa-meal"
    Auditory closure 
  26. A level that deals with the understanding and interpretation of sound and its meaning. It's also critical for learing.
    Comprehension level
  27. Assessment of Children from birth to 6 monts of age. 
    Infant Hearing Screening 
  28. Tells us whether the cochlea is healthy; sound is presented and in response the ear produces a sound and sends it back out; the response is then recorded. 
  29. Examines the activity along the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways; electrodes are placed on the baby's skull and recordings are made of neuroelectrical activity when sound is presented.
    Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) 
  30. Assessment of children from 30 months to 5 years of age.
    Conditioned Play Audiometry (CPA) is to turn hearing test into a listening
  31. This type of assessment is typically for children age 4-5 and above. 
    Speech Recognition Assessment
  32. The softest level that the child can recognize as speech 50% of the time. 
    Speech Recognition Threshold
  33. The percentage of speech that is understood when the speech signal is made sufficently loud for the child (clarity of speech). 
    Speech Recognition Score
  34. What are three types of hearing loss?
    Conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss
  35. Associated with damage in the outer and/or middle ear; otitis media is a common disease of early childhood; age 6, age least one episode of otitis media and 2/3 will have recurring episodes; characterized by a decrease in loudness of sound, but clarity of speech often  remains intact.
    Conductive hearing loss
  36. Associated with damage to the inner ear and/or auditory nerve; genetic factors account for 50% of all cases of SN HL in children; congenital (infection, prematurity, anoxia, and RhFactor) complications; acquired category: meningitis, measles, mumps and others. 
    Sensorineural hearing loss
  37. Exists when there is damage to both the conductive and sensorineural pathways at the same time.
    Mixed hearing loss
  38. It is simply a hearing loss that affects one ear only; could be conductive, SN, or mixed pathology; child can function as well as a Normal Hearing child or severely impaired child
    Unilateral hearing loss
  39. What types of interventions are for hearing loss? 
    Medical surgical treatments for Otitis Media; Hearing aids; Cochlear implants; Aural Rehabilitation
  40. Population: The most likely conductive hearing loss in the pediatric population is that caused by otitis media; inconsistent behaviors and responses to sound; can vary day to day; can disrupt the child's ability or process language at a rapid rate
    Conductive/Otitis Media Population
  41. Population: May vary from borderline or minimally impaired to profoundly deaf, or fall in between; it is imperative that the child be fit with the most effective means of amplification (hearing aid or cochlear implant) and the device be worn frequently; phonology and speech intelligibility will vary tremendously 
    Sensorineural Population 
  42. Population: Wide range of abilities and performance; UHL puts a child at a disadvantage; some examples of areas where children may perform more poorly include lower verbal IQ; poorer speech discrimination in noise; and a variety of auditory, linguistic cognitive difficulities affecting education; 35% of children with UHL fail at least one grade in school with many needing additional resource assistance
    Unilateral Population
  43. Refers to the Deaf culture
    Deaf with a capital "D"
  44. Refers to just having a profound hearing loss
  45. The _________ ____________ has its own culture; own language, and own accepted cultural norms.
    Deaf community
  46. The elements of social competence underlie the reason children develop language to communicate. 
    Secure attachment, Instrumental social learning, experience-sharing relationships 
  47. Refers to the affective tie of infants to their parents; those who have secure generally have parents who are highly attuned and responsive to them.
  48. Actions that are completed to achieve a specific objective in a social setting; Requesting, seeking assistance, standing in line at McDonalds to get food, asking for instructions to complete a class assignment 
    Instrumental social actions
  49. It involves the desire and skills to be a good reciprocal playmate, to value others' points of view, to develop friendships, and to conduct emotion-based interactions.
  50. Children talk to share an experience, feeling or thought with another person; infants need to sustain "intersubjectivity" or interfacing of mind with other persons
    social contact 
  51. ______________ drives language acquisition and ____________ intersubjectivity drives intentionality. 
    intentionality; intersubjectivity 
  52. Children come to recognize others' experiences of emotions; the appreciation of intersubjectivity is known as this; the more the child interacts, the more the child can learn to make appropriate inferences that are critical for appropriate _____ interaction and text ___________. 
    Theory of Mind (ToM); social and comprehension
  53. It reflects a system that promotes the infant's tendency to use respond to eye contact, facial affect, vocal behavior, and body posture in interactions with caregivers; it is from 0-6 months 
    Primary intersubjectivity 
  54. Involves conscious awareness of both self and others as sharing an experience; it is from 6-18 months
    Secondary intersubjectivity 
  55. It involves the integration of information about self-experience of an object or event with information about how others experience the same object or event; infancy of this predicts childhood cognitive and language outcomes and individual differences in social interactive competence in typically developing childen at risk children and children with autism; there are several types of this that develop in the 3-18 month period of infancy.
    Joint attention
  56. What are the three types of joint attention?
    • Responding to Joint Attention (RJA)
    • Initiating Joint Attention (IJA)
    • Initiating Behavior Requests (IBR)
  57. Infant follows direction of gaze, head turn, and/or point gesture of another peron; primary subjectivity
    Responding to Joint Attention (RJA)
  58. Infant uses eye contact and/or deictic gestures to spontaneously initiate coordinated attention with a social partner; secondary subjectivity
    Initiating Joint Attention (IJA)
  59. Infant uses eye contact and gestures to initiate attention coordination with another person to elicit aid in obtaining an object or event; secondary subjectivity
    Initiating Behavior Requests (IBR)
  60. Social-emotional development in joint attention triggers language and then language becomes the medium through which children further develop social-emotional cognition; better understanding of their social world and acquisition of their culture
    Emergence of Language
  61. Infants are born with processes that enable them to perceive people as being similar to themselves; it is based on affective awareness (APS) 
    Infant Engagement Tools
  62. Infant engagement tools are based on affective awareness (APS) which has three components that are?
    Self-referential processes that allow infants an awareness of their own mental states; interpersonal awareness allows them to recognize others; innate sense of emotional attachment
  63. The how of the behavior or behavioral style
  64. Involve changes in mood, activity level adaptability to changes in routine.
  65. What are the three behavioral labels?
    Flexinle, fearful, and feisty
  66. Behavioral label: regular overall pattern; accept new experiences readily, exhibit mild reactions to discomfort, and make smooth adjustments to changes in routine 
  67. Behavioral label: tend to withdraw from new experiences; gradually adapt, but need to be handled sensitively in the process
  68. Behavioral label: easily distressed; express their likes and much more often their dislikes in no uncertain terms; they react forcefully and negatively to even minor changes in routine; difficult for even the caregivers to predict the behaviors of these children 
  69. What are the different types of attachment?
    Secure attachment, avoidant attachment, resistant-ambivalent attachment, and disorganized-disoriented attachment 
  70. Type of attachment: protest mother's departure 
    Secure attachment 
  71. Type of attachment: no distress of mother's departure, willingness to explore toys
    Avoidant attachment 
  72. Type of attachment: sadness on mother's departure and on return show some anger 
    Resistant-ambivalent attachment 
  73. Type of attachment: no clear strategy for responding to their caregivers 
    Disorganized-disoriented attachment 
  74. Use a variety of behaviors to engage and maintain the interest of infants such as exaggerated facial expressions 
    Mainstream Caregivers
  75. Cultures differ in their child rearing practices 
    Cultural Variations in Caregiver- Child interactions 
  76. What are two types of development when communicating with others? 
    Vertical development and horizontal development 
  77. How the expression of communicative intent changes with development; referencing and requesting
    Vertical development
  78. What are some ways to express communicative intent changes with vertical development?
    Gesture, Gesture and Vocalization, and Verbal Production of Word Approximations
  79. What are three types of requests with vertical development?
    Direct, indirect, and hints or nonconventional
  80. What is an example of a direct request?
    "Turn the air down"
  81. What is an example of an indirect request? 
    "Would you mind turning the air down?"
  82. What is an example of a nonconventional request? 
    "Gosh, it sure is cold in here."
  83. Broadens the number of different communicative intents from: 

    instrumental/regulatory to instrumental/regulartory/greeting to instrumental/regulatory/greeting/labeling, etc. 
    Horizontal development 
  84. 55% of children are able to recognize and name basic emotions such as happy, sad, afraid, angry using pictures of facial expressions by what ages?
    Between the ages of 3 and 4
  85. 75% of children can recognize and name basic emotions such as happy, sad, afraid, angry using pictures of facial expressions by what age?
    5 years 
  86. Majority of children understand a person's beliefs that lead to an emotional reaction (snake) by what age?
    7 years
  87. Children believe that a person can have multiple or contradictory emotions (roller coaster) by what age? 
    9 years 
  88. All children understand that there could be repercussions if a lies is told by what age? 
    11 years 
  89. Ways in which internal emotional states are brought into communication within infant-caregiver interactions 
    Affect Attunement 
  90. Individual alters his state to that of the other member of the dyad 
  91. What are the factors affecting social-emotional aspects of communication? 
    Blindness, deafness, SLI, and ASD 
  92. What are the steps for assessing social-emotional bases for communication? 
    Caregiver-child interaction, assessment of Children's Communicative Behaviors and Formal/Standardized assessments. Naturalistic Observations, and Interviews
  93. What are we looking for with recognition of emotion when assessing theory of mind and emotion understanding? 
    Identification of an external cause of emotion, diverse desires, and knowledge access 
  94. What are the explicit false beliefs when assessing theory of mind and emotion understanding? 
    Belief emotions, regulation of emotion, and hiding emotion 
  95. What are the philosophies of intervention for social communicative deficits? 
    • *Establish international functions 
    • *Establish a clear intentional signaling system
    • *Develop socially appropriate and conventionalized signals
    • *Increase the variety and frequency of communicative
    •    intentions 
  96. What is an example of establishing interactional functions?
  97. What is an example of establishing a clear intentional signaling system?
    Responding to a child's behavior as intentional, even when it's not
  98. What is an example of developing socially appropriate and conventionalized signals? 
    Once intentional, shape the behaviors by modeling appropriate gestures and vocalizations
  99. What is an example of increasing the variety and frequency of communicative intentions?
    Communicative temptations
  100. It is inherent to the act of speaking; can convey meaning or simply accompany the forward flow of speech; manual, facial, or other bodily movements; not random movements; convey meaning of what the individual knows; a rich source of information for the child as speaker and listener 
  101. True or False: Children gesture regardless of their cultural background or language that they speak.
  102. True or False: Blind speakers gesture to blind listeners, even though they haven't seen their parents model these gestures.
  103. What are the types of gestures? 
    Deictic, representational, emblem and beat
  104. To request or draw attention to a referent; some examples may be showing, giving, pointing, and ritualized requests such as reaching
    Deictic gestures
  105. They are iconic and convey some aspect of the referent's meaning so they could be understood when they are produced without the reference in sight; some examples are clawing motion of a bear and index finger pointing to the ceiling and twirling around to indicate fan
    Representational gestures 
Card Set
Exam 2
Chapters 4, 5, & 6