The most basic level of sound awareness. It can ve the presence or absence of sound in a baby's environment. Amplification is crucial for a HH child depending upon the hearing loss.
__________ aspects of language such as rhythm, inflection, stress, prosody, and pitch that children master.
__________ aspects of speech occur afterwards and refer to phonemes, morphemes, and syllables.
A level during which children master suprasegmental aspects of language and segmental aspects of speech occur afterwards and refer to phonemes, morphemes, and syllables.
A level that contains identification, auditory memory, attention, and auditory closure.
To point or label an item
An essential ingredient of the identification level.
The ability to focus on the person speaking.
The ability to fill in a missing piece of a word or message. Example, "oa-meal"
A level that deals with the understanding and interpretation of sound and its meaning. It's also critical for learing.
Assessment of Children from birth to 6 monts of age.
Infant Hearing Screening
Tells us whether the cochlea is healthy; sound is presented and in response the ear produces a sound and sends it back out; the response is then recorded.
Examines the activity along the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways; electrodes are placed on the baby's skull and recordings are made of neuroelectrical activity when sound is presented.
Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)
Assessment of children from 30 months to 5 years of age.
Conditioned Play Audiometry (CPA) is to turn hearing test into a listening
This type of assessment is typically for children age 4-5 and above.
Speech Recognition Assessment
The softest level that the child can recognize as speech 50% of the time.
Speech Recognition Threshold
The percentage of speech that is understood when the speech signal is made sufficently loud for the child (clarity of speech).
Speech Recognition Score
What are three types of hearing loss?
Conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss
Associated with damage in the outer and/or middle ear; otitis media is a common disease of early childhood; age 6, age least one episode of otitis media and 2/3 will have recurring episodes; characterized by a decrease in loudness of sound, but clarity of speech often remains intact.
Conductive hearing loss
Associated with damage to the inner ear and/or auditory nerve; genetic factors account for 50% of all cases of SN HL in children; congenital (infection, prematurity, anoxia, and RhFactor) complications; acquired category: meningitis, measles, mumps and others.
Sensorineural hearing loss
Exists when there is damage to both the conductive and sensorineural pathways at the same time.
Mixed hearing loss
It is simply a hearing loss that affects one ear only; could be conductive, SN, or mixed pathology; child can function as well as a Normal Hearing child or severely impaired child
Unilateral hearing loss
What types of interventions are for hearing loss?
Medical surgical treatments for Otitis Media; Hearing aids; Cochlear implants; Aural Rehabilitation
Population: The most likely conductive hearing loss in the pediatric population is that caused by otitis media; inconsistent behaviors and responses to sound; can vary day to day; can disrupt the child's ability or process language at a rapid rate
Conductive/Otitis Media Population
Population: May vary from borderline or minimally impaired to profoundly deaf, or fall in between; it is imperative that the child be fit with the most effective means of amplification (hearing aid or cochlear implant) and the device be worn frequently; phonology and speech intelligibility will vary tremendously
Population: Wide range of abilities and performance; UHL puts a child at a disadvantage; some examples of areas where children may perform more poorly include lower verbal IQ; poorer speech discrimination in noise; and a variety of auditory, linguistic cognitive difficulities affecting education; 35% of children with UHL fail at least one grade in school with many needing additional resource assistance
Refers to the Deaf culture
Deaf with a capital "D"
Refers to just having a profound hearing loss
The _________ ____________ has its own culture; own language, and own accepted cultural norms.
The elements of social competence underlie the reason children develop language to communicate.
Secure attachment, Instrumental social learning, experience-sharing relationships
Refers to the affective tie of infants to their parents; those who have secure generally have parents who are highly attuned and responsive to them.
Actions that are completed to achieve a specific objective in a social setting; Requesting, seeking assistance, standing in line at McDonalds to get food, asking for instructions to complete a class assignment
Instrumental social actions
It involves the desire and skills to be a good reciprocal playmate, to value others' points of view, to develop friendships, and to conduct emotion-based interactions.
Children talk to share an experience, feeling or thought with another person; infants need to sustain "intersubjectivity" or interfacing of mind with other persons
______________ drives language acquisition and ____________ intersubjectivity drives intentionality.
Children come to recognize others' experiences of emotions; the appreciation of intersubjectivity is known as this; the more the child interacts, the more the child can learn to make appropriate inferences that are critical for appropriate _____ interaction and text ___________.
Theory of Mind (ToM); social and comprehension
It reflects a system that promotes the infant's tendency to use respond to eye contact, facial affect, vocal behavior, and body posture in interactions with caregivers; it is from 0-6 months
Involves conscious awareness of both self and others as sharing an experience; it is from 6-18 months
It involves the integration of information about self-experience of an object or event with information about how others experience the same object or event; infancy of this predicts childhood cognitive and language outcomes and individual differences in social interactive competence in typically developing childen at risk children and children with autism; there are several types of this that develop in the 3-18 month period of infancy.
What are the three types of joint attention?
Responding to Joint Attention (RJA)
Initiating Joint Attention (IJA)
Initiating Behavior Requests (IBR)
Infant follows direction of gaze, head turn, and/or point gesture of another peron; primary subjectivity
Responding to Joint Attention (RJA)
Infant uses eye contact and/or deictic gestures to spontaneously initiate coordinated attention with a social partner; secondary subjectivity
Initiating Joint Attention (IJA)
Infant uses eye contact and gestures to initiate attention coordination with another person to elicit aid in obtaining an object or event; secondary subjectivity
Initiating Behavior Requests (IBR)
Social-emotional development in joint attention triggers language and then language becomes the medium through which children further develop social-emotional cognition; better understanding of their social world and acquisition of their culture
Emergence of Language
Infants are born with processes that enable them to perceive people as being similar to themselves; it is based on affective awareness (APS)
Infant Engagement Tools
Infant engagement tools are based on affective awareness (APS) which has three components that are?
Self-referential processes that allow infants an awareness of their own mental states; interpersonal awareness allows them to recognize others; innate sense of emotional attachment
The how of the behavior or behavioral style
Involve changes in mood, activity level adaptability to changes in routine.
What are the three behavioral labels?
Flexinle, fearful, and feisty
Behavioral label: regular overall pattern; accept new experiences readily, exhibit mild reactions to discomfort, and make smooth adjustments to changes in routine
Behavioral label: tend to withdraw from new experiences; gradually adapt, but need to be handled sensitively in the process
Behavioral label: easily distressed; express their likes and much more often their dislikes in no uncertain terms; they react forcefully and negatively to even minor changes in routine; difficult for even the caregivers to predict the behaviors of these children
What are the different types of attachment?
Secure attachment, avoidant attachment, resistant-ambivalent attachment, and disorganized-disoriented attachment
Type of attachment: protest mother's departure
Type of attachment: no distress of mother's departure, willingness to explore toys
Type of attachment: sadness on mother's departure and on return show some anger
Type of attachment: no clear strategy for responding to their caregivers
Use a variety of behaviors to engage and maintain the interest of infants such as exaggerated facial expressions
Cultures differ in their child rearing practices
Cultural Variations in Caregiver- Child interactions
What are two types of development when communicating with others?
Vertical development and horizontal development
How the expression of communicative intent changes with development; referencing and requesting
What are some ways to express communicative intent changes with vertical development?
Gesture, Gesture and Vocalization, and Verbal Production of Word Approximations
What are three types of requests with vertical development?
Direct, indirect, and hints or nonconventional
What is an example of a direct request?
"Turn the air down"
What is an example of an indirect request?
"Would you mind turning the air down?"
What is an example of a nonconventional request?
"Gosh, it sure is cold in here."
Broadens the number of different communicative intents from:
instrumental/regulatory to instrumental/regulartory/greeting to instrumental/regulatory/greeting/labeling, etc.
55% of children are able to recognize and name basic emotions such as happy, sad, afraid, angry using pictures of facial expressions by what ages?
Between the ages of 3 and 4
75% of children can recognize and name basic emotions such as happy, sad, afraid, angry using pictures of facial expressions by what age?
Majority of children understand a person's beliefs that lead to an emotional reaction (snake) by what age?
Children believe that a person can have multiple or contradictory emotions (roller coaster) by what age?
All children understand that there could be repercussions if a lies is told by what age?
Ways in which internal emotional states are brought into communication within infant-caregiver interactions
Individual alters his state to that of the other member of the dyad
What are the factors affecting social-emotional aspects of communication?
Blindness, deafness, SLI, and ASD
What are the steps for assessing social-emotional bases for communication?
Caregiver-child interaction, assessment of Children's Communicative Behaviors and Formal/Standardized assessments. Naturalistic Observations, and Interviews
What are we looking for with recognition of emotion when assessing theory of mind and emotion understanding?
Identification of an external cause of emotion, diverse desires, and knowledge access
What are the explicit false beliefs when assessing theory of mind and emotion understanding?
Belief emotions, regulation of emotion, and hiding emotion
What are the philosophies of intervention for social communicative deficits?
*Establish international functions
*Establish a clear intentional signaling system
*Develop socially appropriate and conventionalized signals
*Increase the variety and frequency of communicative
What is an example of establishing interactional functions?
What is an example of establishing a clear intentional signaling system?
Responding to a child's behavior as intentional, even when it's not
What is an example of developing socially appropriate and conventionalized signals?
Once intentional, shape the behaviors by modeling appropriate gestures and vocalizations
What is an example of increasing the variety and frequency of communicative intentions?
It is inherent to the act of speaking; can convey meaning or simply accompany the forward flow of speech; manual, facial, or other bodily movements; not random movements; convey meaning of what the individual knows; a rich source of information for the child as speaker and listener
True or False: Children gesture regardless of their cultural background or language that they speak.
True or False: Blind speakers gesture to blind listeners, even though they haven't seen their parents model these gestures.
What are the types of gestures?
Deictic, representational, emblem and beat
To request or draw attention to a referent; some examples may be showing, giving, pointing, and ritualized requests such as reaching
They are iconic and convey some aspect of the referent's meaning so they could be understood when they are produced without the reference in sight; some examples are clawing motion of a bear and index finger pointing to the ceiling and twirling around to indicate fan