Ethics Final

  1. external
    • developmental
    • functionalities
    • capacities
  2. intrinsic/ontological
    • essence
    • nature of being itself that determines whether it is morally protected
  3. necessary cause
    any condition which must be present to bring about a desired result, but which could not cause the result itself, without a sufficient cause
  4. sufficient cause
    any condition which suffices to bring about the effect. It is by definition, at the same time a necessary condition for the effect
  5. substances
    • living things
    • internal essence that orders its change and development
    • the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
    • unity and cohesiveness
    • maintain their ontological identity through change
  6. property-things
    • inanimate objects
    • ordered, but order is externally imposed
    • no defining essence or principle that directs its change
    • do not maintain ontological identity through change
  7. "image of God" in the ancient near east
    • functions
    • 1. to be the dwelling place of the spirit which derived from the being whose image it was: carry out the essence of what it represents
    • 2. as a representative of one who is really or spiritually present, though physically absent...king and land
  8. Substantive View
    • "in our image, in our likeness..."--Genesis 1:26--27
    • image= some definite quality or characteristic within the makeup of the human/ usually reason
    • they agree on one particular conception: location of the image: within the humans
    • quality or capacity resident in their nature
  9. Relational View
    • "Let us...male and female he created them..." Genesis 1:26-27
    • image of God is experiencing relationships
    • the relationship is the image
    • dynamic, not static
    • paralleled by relationship of one human to another
  10. Functional View
    • "...and let them rule...rule over...the lord God...put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it..."
    • image consists of something we do, function we perform
    • exercise of dominion over the creation
  11. Animals are similar
    • both created on day 6
    • both brought forth/made from the "ground"
  12. Humans are different from animals
    • humans created in image of God
    • humans given dominion over animals
    • god breathed directly the "breath of life" into man
    • suitable companion for man could not be found anywhere
    • human beings are given free will
    • humans experience relationships with one another and with God
    • humans are permitted to kill and eat animals but not other humans
  13. metabolic view
    • no one point when life begins
    • sperm and egg cell are as alive as any other organism
  14. genetic view
    • new individual is created at fertilization
    • genes combine to form new being
  15. embryological view
    • single individuality is not fixed earlier than day 14
    • different souls
  16. neurological view
    • EEG @ 27 weeks
    • loss of EEG pattern
  17. ecological/technological view
    • begins when it can exist separately from its maternal environment
    • 25 weeks
  18. immunological view
    • when organism recognizes the distinction between self and non-self
    • about birth for humans
  19. integrated physiological view
    • begins when an individual has becomes independent of the mother and has its own functioning circulatory system...etc.
    • day of birth
  20. abortion rate:
    • number of abortions per 1,000 live births
    • 238 in 2004
  21. abortion rate:
    16 per 1,000 women in 2004
  22. top 3 self-reported reasons for having an abortion
    • concerned about how having baby would change her life
    • can't afford baby now
    • as problems with relationship and wants to avoid single parenthood
  23. spontaneous abortion
    • involving no outside or external intervention
    • miscarriages
  24. induced abortions
    • involving outside or external intervention
    • Three types:
    • therapeutic
    • eugenic
    • elective
  25. Therapeutic abortions
    • performed to save the mother's life
    • >tubal pregnancies
    • >maternal heart disease
    • >maternal cancer
  26. Eugenic abortions
    • performed to abort a fetus that has or is at risk for some physical and/or mental handicaps
    • life or health of fetus
  27. Elective abortions
    • "right to choose" for other reasons
    • 92%-93% are elective
  28. Roe v Wade
    • 1973
    • 3 trimesters
    • although women has right to abortion, state also has interest in protecting woman's health and life of fetus
    • grows with development of fetus
  29. Doe v Bolton
    women's "health" is broadened to include emotional and psychological factors
  30. Planned Parenthood v Danforth
    • woman's right to abortion cannot be limited by the requirement that a spouse or parent of a minor child must grant prior permission
    • parent to counseling
    • PA law mostly upheld
  31. Webster v Reproductive Health Services
    • right to an abortion is a negative right, a right to be left alone and free from interference in pursuing an abortion
    • no public funds, no use of public facilities for abortions that are not necessary to save human's life
  32. zygote
    merging of sperm and egg into a single cell
  33. embryo
    7 days (implantation) to 8 weeks
  34. fetus
    9 weeks to birth
  35. implantation
    7-10 days
  36. Three pillars of Roe v Wade
    • Privacy: "right to privacy" included a woman's freedom to choose abortion-on-demand
    • Personhood: pre-born entity is not a person
    • Viability: state has an interest in, or may protect, only the viable fetus-- one that can survive outside the womb
  37. voluntary
    at the patient's request; when a patient request that someone take his or her life and his or her desire is honored
  38. involuntary
    against the wishes of the patient; when a patient desires to live and his or her request is not honored
  39. non-voluntary
    without the knowledge or consent of the patient; when a patient is killed by someone who is not aware of the patients' wishes, either because those wishes are unobtainable or because the person chooses not to obtain them
  40. direct
    individual himself carries out the decision to die
  41. indirect
    someone else carries out the decision of the patient to die
  42. active euthanasia
    • "directly taking the life of the patient"
    • "mercy killing"
    • someone causes it, not the disease
  43. passive euthanasia
    • "acting to avoid prolonging the dying process"
    • withholding or refusal of treatment
    • TLS
    • "letting die"
    • disease or underlying condition causes death
  44. difference between active and passive
    • difference between commission (active) and omission (passive)
    • intention
    • what is the actual cause
  45. Physician Assisted Suicide
    • physician serves as a causal agent in death
    • provide means, prescription
    • death is caused by medication, not underlying condition
    • OR, WA, MT
  46. Ordinary means
    course of treatment for a disease or injury that offers reasonable hope of benefit to the patient without being burdensome
  47. Extraordinary means
    do not offer such hope and place undue burdens on the patient
  48. Advanced directives
    • living will
    • values inventory
    • DNR
    • DPAHC: durable power of attorney for health care
  49. Karen Quinlan
    • coma, respirator
    • parents decided to remove respirator
    • NJ supreme court ruled in favor of Quinlans: let the incompetent patient die by disconnecting LS
  50. Nancy Cruzan
    • PVS- 7 years
    • withdrawal of feeding tube
    • court recognized right of a competent patient to decline medical treatment
    • court found that withdrawing a feeding tube did not differ from withdrawing other medical support
    • court held that state could, but not need pass a statute requiring the clear and convicting standard of evidence about what a formerly competent patient would have wanted (incompetent now)
  51. Derek Humphrey
    • Hemlock society
    • Jean's Way
    • Final Exit...etc
  52. Kevorkian
    • "Doctor Death"
    • "Mercitron"
    • Janet Adkins- watched
    • Thomas Youk- administered lethal injection
  53. Quill
    • Diane
    • provided drugs
  54. Death with Dignity Act
    • "Right to Die"
    • Oregon
    • Washington
    • Montana
    • 59 deaths in 2009
  55. Netherlands
    • first country to legalize euthanasia and PAS
    • doctors practice it apart from the guidelines
  56. Rachels
    • no morally relevant difference between killing and letting die
    • biological life v biographical life
    • biological life is unimportant
    • biographical life is "the sum of one's aspirations, decisions, activities, projects and human relationships"
    • kid in the tub
  57. Fletcher
    • if abortion is morally justified, so is euthanasia
    • in utero v in estremis
  58. law of double effect
    • if an inherently good act has two effects, one good and one bad, a person can act morally in doing the act provided
    • 1. only the good effect is intended
    • 2. the bad effect is not the means to the good effect
    • 3. the good effect is at least equal to the bad effect
  59. sledgehammer effect
    still guilty because case masks the difference; both wrong, evil, neither one is ok.
  60. constitutional homosexual
    • person whose sexual attraction to those of the same gender is so deeply rooted that it is part of his or her essential being
    • homosexual orientation
    • inversion
Card Set
Ethics Final
Contemp Thompson