strength and conditioning

  1. tendon insertion 
    is a genetic factor contributing to strenght tha tdoes not change with training
  2. action force 
    the force applied by an individual to an ovjedt with the intent to accelerate, deccelerate, stopl maintain, or change the direction of the object
  3. reaction force 
    produced in response to the action. third law of motion, for ever action there is an equal and opposite reaction. the reactive force is equal and opposite of the action force
  4. ground reaction force
    the ground supplies an equal and opposite force in response to a force applied to the ground by the athlete during locomotion. the ground reation force enables the athlete to run
  5. friction
    • act to oppose relative motion of these two surfaces 
    • friction causes stability at the point of contactand prevents one object from sliding past the other
  6. coeffiecient of friction
    • the maximum frictional force is the product of the reactive force and a quantiy 
    • the numerical representation of the two contact surfaces
    • chalk increases this friction
  7. static friction
    • acts between two objects not moving relative to each other where there is sufficient stability between the contact surfaces
    • static friction between a players feet and ground plays a role in shoe desine
  8. dynamic friction (sliding)
    • acts between two surfaces moving relative to each other, resulting in sliding
    • ice 
  9. intra abdominal pressure iap
    the pressure developed within the abdominal cavity during contraction of deep trunk muscles and the diaphragm
  10. neural drive
    the magnitude of the signal is is critical in dtermining the final output , wgich could be teh expression of muscular strenght and power 
  11. increases in neural drive occur via increase in 
    agonist muslce recruitment, firing rat, and the timing pattern of discharge during high intensity muscular contractions
  12. central nervous system
    consits of brain and spinal cord
  13. peripheral nervous system constist of two major divisions
    • snensory 
    • motor
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves exist and exit on the posterior sensory and aniterior motor root of the spinal cord
  14. sensory nervous system 
    detects various stimulu and conveys this infomation afferently to cns
  15. motor nervous system consist of two major divisions
    • somatic 
    • autonomic 
  16. somatice nervous system 
    conveys infromation from the cns efferently(away from the cns) to the skeletal muscle ultimately leading to muscle contraction and fatigue
  17. autonomic system
    consist of nerves conveying efferent information to smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and other glands , tissues, and organs
  18. ANS consits of what to systems
    • parasympathetic 
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • both preparing the body for the stress of exercise and retuning the body back to normal resting conditions
  19. parasympathetic nervous system
    decrease excitment
  20. sympathetic 
    excitement increase in the heart rate
  21. neurons
    are the actual nerve cells with the ability to conmmunicate with other tissues and nerves.
  22. supporting cells 
    play key stability roles troughout the cns
  23. sensory neurons tend to be------- whereas motor neurons are ------
    • unipolar 
    • multipolar
  24. dedrites 
    receive input from other nerve cells
  25. cell body contains the organells responsible for 
    • protein snthesis
    • transport
    • energy metabolism
    • packaging and plays the critical role in integratin stimuli from other neurons from within the cns to determine if and how much stimuli will make its way to skeletal muscle
  26. axons 
    are long processes that are reponsible for communicationg with target tissuess
  27. axon hillock 
    is the area where the action potential is initiated once the critical threshold is reaxhed
  28. myelin sheath 
    fatty tissue wrapped around the axons wichi greatly increases the speed of transmission.
  29. presynaptic terminal 
    the end of the axon branches 
  30. propagation
    • ion movement down axon at nodes of ranvier
    • sodium and potassium
  31. action potential consist of three major events
    • integration
    • propagation
    • neurotransmitter release
  32. brainstem consting of 
    • medulla oblongata 
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • and reticular fromation
  33. diencephalon consits of 
    • thalamus
    • gypothalamus
    • pineal body
    • epithalamus
  34. desecending coricospinal or pyramidal tracts
    are large collection of axons linking the cerbral cortex to the spinal cord
  35. the motor pathway is characterized by 
    neurons in the brain  forming synapses with other nerves that eventually make their way down the spinal cord to the exact anterior root of exit for innervation of skeletal muscle
  36. recrutment 
    thee vouluntary activation of motor units during effort
  37. motor units are recruited and decruited in an orderl progression based on 
    the size principle
  38. size principle
    • states the motor units are recruited in succession from smaller slow twitch to largere fast twitch units based on each acivation threshold and firing rate. 
    • small units are recruited first for mor intricate control 
    • larger units are recruited later to supplu substantial force for high intesnsity contractions
    • 84-90% of motor units are recruited here
  39. what is the most imoportant determinate of motor unit recruitment
    activation threshold
  40. what is mandatory in order to continually activate an optimal amout of muscle mass
    progressive overload
  41. smaller muscles  rely on what to enhance force and power production
    increasing firing rates
  42. larger muscles rely more on  for force and power
  43. ------ enhances firing rates of recurited motor units
  44. synchronization 
    • occurs when two or more motor units fire at fixed time intervals
    • may be advantageous for burst of strenght or powr needed in a short period of time
    • greater motor synchronization has been shown after rt
  45. antagonist muscles
    • during movement increases join stability, movement coordination, and reduces the risk of injury
    • can be counterproductive because it may counteract the effects of agonist muscles
  46. what affect the magnitude of of antagonist cocontraction
    • muscle group
    • velocity and type of muscle axtion
    • intensity
    • joint position
    • and injury status 
  47. whats the key transmitter between a motor nerve and skeltal muscle
  48. neuromuscular junction refers to
    • the nerve terminal
    • space 
    • and muscle fiber membrane
  49. the two proprioceptors critical to exercise and sports performance are
    • golgi tendon organs
    • muscle spindles
  50. golgi tendon organs
    • located at the muscle tendon junction
    • primary role is to convey information regarding muscle tension to the cns. 
    • as muscle tension increase  so does the amount of stretch to the gtos
    • once a threshold level of tension is attained, gto activity increases greatly and it response is to cause agonist muscle relaxation and anagonist muscle excitation
    • body defense mechanism to protect the body form excessive damage
  51. muscle spindles 
    • proprioceptors located within muscle fibers
    • consits of two chains nuclear chain and nuclear bag
    • respond to the magnitude of change in muscle length, the rate of change of length, and convey information to the cns regarding static changes in muscle lenght or joint angle
    • enhance human performance
    • initiate the stretch reflex
  52. stretch reflex
    • monosynaptic reflex- a snseory nerve directly synapses with motor nerve in spinal cord
    • where muscle force production is enhanced when the muscle is previoulsy stretched
  53. electromyography emg
    • quantifies the level of electrical activity to a skeletal muscle
    • reflects greater neural activation
    • increased recruitment, rate, synchronization, golgi tendon inhibition  cannot be determinded 
  54. why do emg decline in when hypertrophy takes place
    muscle fibers are capable of providing more tension
  55. emg increases or is higher when
    • the intensity is high 
    • the lifiting velocity is fast 
    • and con muscle actions is used
  56. cross eductaion
    • strength and endurance gained in the nontrained limb during unilateral training.
    • the strength increase is accompanied by greater emg activity in the trained and nontrained limbs.
    • edurance may increase in the untrained limb as well
  57. unilateral training 
    may be useful in improving functional performance and very useful for injured individuals because partial training effect may be gained by the inhured limb during tim of immobilization or greatly reduced activity
  58. bilateral deficit
    the maximal force produced by both limbs contractin bilaterally in smaller than the sum of the limbs contracting unilaterally
Card Set
strength and conditioning