B ex 1.txt

  1. What are the 3 types of symbiotic relationship?
    • Mutualism: the relationship is +/+
    • Commensalism: is +/0
    • Parasitism: +/-
  2. What are the procedures of Koch's postulates?
    • Isolate microorganisms from dead animals
    • Grow microorganisms in pure culture
    • Inject microorganisms in healthy animal
    • Microorganisms reproduce in animal
    • Microorganisms are isolated again
  3. What are the characteristics of charophyceans?
    • Homologous cell wall
    • Homologous chloroplast
    • Phagmoplasts( mitosis & cytokinesis)
    • Peroxisome enzyme
    • Genetic relationship
    • Fresh water
  4. What are the plant's adaptations to terrestrial Life?
    • Apical meristems
    • Multicellular dependent embryo (to give the offspring a better start)
    • Alternative of generation (ex. Gametophyte or sporophyte)
    • Walled spores produced in sporangia
    • Others: cuticle, stomata, xylem, phloem
    • Secondary compounds: developing compounds that is toxic to protection the plant from predators
  5. What characteristics do the water and slime molds have in common with protista?
    • Produce flagellated productive cells
    • Cell walls made of cellulose
    • Amoeba or algae like
  6. What characteristics do the water and slime molds have in common with fungi?
    • Hyphae
    • Non-photosynthetic
    • Produce sporangia
  7. Feeding strategy photoautotrophic
    Energy source
    Carbon source
    • Light
    • CO2
  8. Feeding strategy chemoautotrophic
    Energy source
    Carbon source
    • Inorganic chemical
    • CO2
  9. Feeding strategy photoheterotrophic
    Energy source
    Carbon source
    • Light
    • Organic compound
  10. Feeding strategy chemheterotrophic
    Energy source
    Carbon source
    • Organic chemical
    • Organic compound
  11. List all characteristics of vascular seedless plants
    • Formation of vascular tissue ( xylem, phloem; true leaves, roots, stems)
    • Lignin ( support)
    • Sporophyte generation dominant
    • Sperm with flagella (have to be near water)
  12. What are the two main points of Darwin's book?
    • Decent with modification - offspring have variation with gene with parents.
    • Natural selection - ( differential reproduction ) the idea that those organisms best adapted to a given environment will be mist likely to survive to reproducive age and have offsprings of their own.
  13. What are the favorable conditions for allopatric speciation?
    • Small population (different gene couple spread quickly)
    • isolation (immigration and emigration )
    • Different environmental conditions (ex grand Canon)
  14. What are the possible out come of a hybrid zone?
    • Reinforcement: strengthening of reproductive barrier
    • Fusion: weakening of reproductive barrier
    • stability: continued production of hybrid individuals.
  15. What are the three types of Gradualism?
    • Populational: new traits become established in a population by increasingtheir frequency from a small fraction of the population to the majority.
    • Phenotypic: new traits, even those that are strikingly different fromancestral ones are produced in small increments.
    • Phyletic: on a geological time scale, there are intermediate formsconnecting the phenotypes of ancestors and descendents.
  16. List out different types of fossil records. Provide example for each type to getfull points.
    • Sedimentary rocks: things been covered quickly. Ex: Grand Canyon
    • Hard parts: teeth, bone, shell, seeds, spore.
    • Minerals: petrified tree.
    • Organic material: leaves, insect. Preserve the ecology at that time.
    • Casts: outside structure of the organism
    • Trace fossils: footprint/ evidence of social behavior, size, and weight.
    • Entire organism: organism preserved within amber.
  17. What are the possible outcomes of a hybrid zone?
    • Overtime
    • Reinforcement •Strengtheining of reproductive barriers
    • Fusion •Weakening of reproductive barriers
    • Stability •Continued production of hybrid individuals
  18. What are the two major type of macroevolution through many speciationevents?
    • Evolutionary Novelties
    • Evolution of Genes that control development •Changes in Spatial Pattern •Changes in Rate and Timing
  19. Julian Huxley proposed a theory called Modern Synthesis suggested thatevolution of genes control development, which was also known as the “Evo-devo.” What are the main components in this theory? What “tools” can befound in the genetic tool kit?
    • Modern Synthesis:
    • I. Gradual evolution can be explained by small genetic changes that producevariation which is acted upon by natural selection
    • II. The evolution at higher taxonomic levels and of greater magnitude can beexplained by long periods of time
    • Genetic tool kit:
    • I.Hox proteins
    • II.Pax-6 gene
    • III. Cell-type regulators
    • IV. Cellular receptors
    • V.Hormones
    • VI. Coloration proteins
Card Set
B ex 1.txt
bio 2 exam 1