1. quantitiative
    type of data that can be converted into numbers usually for statistical comparison
  2. qualitative
    type of data that cant be converted into numbers usually because they relate to meaning
  3. scientific method
    a procedure for acquiring knowledge that emphasizes collecting concrete data through obeservation and experiment
  4. scientific method
    procedure for acquring knowledge that emphasizes collecting concrete data through observation and experiment.
  5. literature review
    thorough search through previously published studies relevant to a particlular topic
  6. hypothesis
    theoretical statement explaining the relationship between two or more phenomena
  7. variables
    one of two or more phenomena that a researcher believes are releated and hpes to prove are related through research
  8. operational definition
    clear and precise definition of a variable that faciliates its measurements
  9. causation
    relationship between variables in which a change in one directly produces a change in the other.
  10. intervening variable
    thrid variable sometimes overlooked that explains the relationsihip between two other variables
  11. spurious correlation
    appearance of causation produced by an intervening variable
  12. paradigm shift
    describe a change in basic assumption of a particular scientific discipline.
  13. ethnography
    naturalistic method based on studying people int heir own enviorment in order tounderstand the meanings they attribute to their activites also the written work that results from the study
  14. participant observation
    methodology associated with ethnography where by the researcher both observes and becomes a member in a social setting.
  15. acess
    process by which an thenographer gains entry to a field setting
  16. rapport
    positive relationship often characterized by mutual trust of sympathy
  17. fieldnotes
    detailed notes taken by an ethnographer describing her activites and interactions, which later become the basis of the ethnographic analysis
  18. reflexivity
    identity and activites of the researcher influence what is going on in the field setting
  19. grounded theory
    inductive method of generating theory from data by creating categories in whic hto place data and then looking for relationships between categories
  20. replicability
    research that can be repeated, and thus verified by other researchers later
  21. representativeness
    degree to which particluar studied groups is similar to, represents any part of the larger society
  22. bias
    opinion held by the researcher that might affect the research or analysis
  23. intervies
    face to face information seeking conversation, sometimes defined as a converssation with a purpose.
  24. respondent
    someone from whom a researcher solicits info
  25. target population
    entire group about which a researcher would like to be able to gerneralize
  26. samples
    part of the population that would actually be studied.
  27. closed-ended question
    a question asked of a respondent that imposes a limit on the possible responses
  28. open-ended question
    a question asked of a respondent that allws the answer to take whatever form the repondent chooses
  29. leading question
    questions that predispose respondent to answer in a certain way
  30. double barreled question
    questions that attempt to get at multiple issues at onece and so tend to revieve incomplete answers 
  31. survey
    method based on questionaires that are administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population.
  32. likert scale
    way of organizing categories on a survey question so that the respondent can choose an answer along a continium.
  33. negative questions
    survey questions that ask respondents what they dont think instead of what they do.
  34. represenatatives sample
    sample taken so that findings from members of the sample group can be generalized to the whole population
  35. probabilty sampling
    sampling scheme in which the probabiliiy of selecting any given unit is known.
  36. simple random sample
    particular type of probability sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
  37. weighting
    techniques for manipulating the sampling procedure so that the sample more closely resmebles hte larger populatioin.
  38. response rate
    the number or percentage of surveys completed by respondents and returned to researchers.
  39. reliability
    the consistency of a question or measurement tool; the degree to which the same question will produce similar answers
  40. confidentiality
    the assurance that no one other than the researcher will know the idenitity of a respondent.
  41. validity
    the accuracy of a question or measurement tool; the degree which a researcher is measuring whaat he thinks he is measuring.
  42. pilot study
    small study carried out to test the feasibilty of a larger one
  43. existing sources
    any data that have already been collected and are available for future research.
  44. comparative and historical methods
    methonds that use existing sources to study relationships between elements of society in various regions and time periods.
  45. content analysis
    a method in which researchers identify and study specific variables- such as words- in a text image, or media message
  46. experiments
    formal tests of specific variables and effects, performed in a controlled setting where all aspects of the situation can be controlled
  47. control
    experiment, the process of regulating all factors except for the independent variable
  48. experimental group
    part of a test group that recieves the experimental treatment
  49. control group
    part of a test group that is allowed to continue without intervention so that it can be compared with experiment treatement.
  50. independent variable
     factor that is predicted to cause change
  51. dependet variable
    factor that is changed by the indpependet variable
  52. value free sociology
    ideal wherby researcher identify facts without allowing their ow personal beliefs or biases to interfere
  53. basic research
    search for knowledge without any agneda or desire to use that knowledge to effect change
  54. applied research
    research designed to allow the researcher to use what is learned to create some sort of change
  55. objectivity
    impartiality the ability to allow the facts to speak for themselves
  56. reactivity
    tendency of people and events to react to the process of being studied.
  57. hawthorne effects
    specific example of reactivity, in which the desired effects is the result not of the indpendent variable but of the research itself.
  58. deception
    extent to which the participants in a research project are unaware of the project or its goals
  59. code of ethics
    ethical guidlines for researchers to consult as they design a project
  60. insitiutional review board
    group of scholars within a unviersity who meet regularly to review and approve the research proposals of their colleagues and make recommendation for how to protects human subjects.
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