1. Theories
    sociolgy abstract proposition that explain the social world and make predictions about future events
  2. positivism
    Theory, developed by auguiste comte, that sense perception are the only valid source of knowledge
  3. scientific method
    procedure for acquriring knowlege that emphasizes collecting concrete data through observation and experiment
  4. eurocentrism
    the tendency to favor european ro western history, culture and values over other histories, cultures, and values
  5. Empirical
    based on scientific experimentation or observation
  6. mechanical solidarity
    term developed by emile Durkeheim to describe the type of social bonds present in premodern agrarian socities, in which shared tradition and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion
  7. organic solidarity
    described the type of social bonds present in modern socities, based on difference. Interdependence and individual rights
  8. anomie
    "normless" term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and increased pace of change.
  9. Solidarity
    the degree of integration or unity within a particular society; the exten to which individuals feel connected to other mebers of their group.
  10. communism
    a political system based on the collective ownership of the means of production; opposed to capitalism.
  11. conflict
    generated by the copetition between different class groups for scarce resources and the source of all social change, according to karl marx.
  12. social inequality
    the uneven and often unfair distribution of goods within society
  13. capitalism
    economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and charachterized by competition, the profit motive and wage labor
  14. means of production
    anything that can create wealth: money, property, factories and other types of businesses and the infrastucture necessary to run them.
  15. proletariat
    workers; those who have no means of production of their own and so are reduced to selling their labor pwoer in order to live
  16. bourgeoisie
    owners; the class of modern capitalist who are the employers of wage labor
  17. alienation
    sense of dissatification the modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else, according to marx
  18. socialism
    a political system based on state ownership or control of principal elements of economy in order to reduce levels of social inequality.
  19. rationalization
    the application of economic logic to human acitivit; the use of formal rules and regulation in order to maximize effieciency without consideration of subjective  or individual concerns.
  20. bureaucracies
    secondary groups designed to perform tasks efficiently. characterized by specilization technical competence, hierarchy written rules, impersonality and formal written communication.
  21. iron cage
    max weber pessimistic description of modern life, in which the "techinical and economic condidtins of machine production" control our lives through rigid rules and rationalization
  22. verstehen
    "to understand" webers term to describe good social research which tries to understand the meanings that individual social actors attach to various actions and events.
  23. psychoanalysis
    the therapeutic branch ofpsychology founded by sigmund freud in which free association and dream interpreation are used to explore the unconscious mind.
  24. Eros
    in Freudian psychology, the drive or instinc that desires productivity and construction
  25. thanatos
    freudian psychology, the drive or instinct toward aggression or destructions
  26. repression
    the process that causes unwanted or taboo desires to return via tics, dreams slips of the tongue, and neuroses, according to freud.
  27. sublimation
    process in which socially unacceptable desires are healthyily channeled into socially acceptable expressions, according freud.
  28. paradigm
    set of assumption, theories, and persepectives that make up a way of understanding social reality.
  29. structual functionalism
    paradigm that begins with assumptions that society is unified whole that functions because of the contribution of its separate structures.
  30. dysfunction
    disturbance to or undersirable consequence of some aspect of the social system
  31. mainfiest function
    the obvious intended function of a social structure for the social system.
  32. latent function
    the less obvious, perhaps uninteded functions of a social structure.
  33. conflict theory
    a paradigm that sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change and emphasizes a materialist view of soicety, a critical view of status quo and a dynamic model of historical quo and a dynamic model of historical change.
  34. ideology
    a system of beliefs, attitudes, and values that directs a sociaty and reproduces the status quo of the bourgeoisie
  35. false consciousness
    denial of thetruth on the part of the oppresed when they fail to recognize the interests of the ruling class in their ideology.
  36. class consciousness
    the recognition of social inequality on the part of the oppresed, leading to revolutionary action.
  37. dialectical model
    Marxs model of historical change, whereby two extreme posotions come into conflict and create some new third thing between them.
  38. thesis
    existing social arrangements in a dialectical model
  39. antithesis
    the opposition to the existing arrangements in a dialectical model.
  40. synthesis
    the new social system created out of the conflict between theisis and antitheisis in a dialectical model.
  41. double consciousness
    WEB doubis term for conflict felt by and about African American, who were both american. and African subject to prejudices and discrimination at the same time.
  42. elites
    those in power in a society
  43. critical theory
    A contemporary form of conflict theorgy that criticizens many diffrent systems and idologies of domination and oppression.
  44. praxis
    practical action that is taken on the basis of intellectual or theoretical understandings
  45. Symbolic interactionism
    paradigm that sees interaction and meaing as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interactions
  46. pragmatism
    theoretical persepective that assumes organism make prectical adaptions to their enviornments. Humans do this through cognition, interpreation and interactions.
  47. dramaturgy
    theoretical paradigm that uses the metaphor of the theater to understand how individuals present themselves to others.
  48. ethnomethodolgy
    study of folk methods or everyday interactions, that musct be uncovered rather thans studied directly
  49. conversation analysis
    sociological approach that looks at how we create meaning in naturally occuring conversation, often by taping conversations and examing them.
  50. feminist theory
    theoretical approach that looks at gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world
  51. queer theory
    paradigm that propeses that categories of sexual identity are socal constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal
  52. postmodernism
    paradigm that suggest that social reality is diverse, pluralistic and constantly in flux.
  53. modernism
    paradigm that places trust in power of sicence and technology to create progress, solve problems and improve life.
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