sociolgy abstract proposition that explain the social world and make predictions about future events
Theory, developed by auguiste comte, that sense perception are the only valid source of knowledge
procedure for acquriring knowlege that emphasizes collecting concrete data through observation and experiment
the tendency to favor european ro western history, culture and values over other histories, cultures, and values
based on scientific experimentation or observation
term developed by emile Durkeheim to describe the type of social bonds present in premodern agrarian socities, in which shared tradition and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion
described the type of social bonds present in modern socities, based on difference. Interdependence and individual rights
"normless" term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and increased pace of change.
the degree of integration or unity within a particular society; the exten to which individuals feel connected to other mebers of their group.
a political system based on the collective ownership of the means of production; opposed to capitalism.
generated by the copetition between different class groups for scarce resources and the source of all social change, according to karl marx.
the uneven and often unfair distribution of goods within society
economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and charachterized by competition, the profit motive and wage labor
means of production
anything that can create wealth: money, property, factories and other types of businesses and the infrastucture necessary to run them.
workers; those who have no means of production of their own and so are reduced to selling their labor pwoer in order to live
owners; the class of modern capitalist who are the employers of wage labor
sense of dissatification the modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else, according to marx
a political system based on state ownership or control of principal elements of economy in order to reduce levels of social inequality.
the application of economic logic to human acitivit; the use of formal rules and regulation in order to maximize effieciency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns.
secondary groups designed to perform tasks efficiently. characterized by specilization technical competence, hierarchy written rules, impersonality and formal written communication.
max weber pessimistic description of modern life, in which the "techinical and economic condidtins of machine production" control our lives through rigid rules and rationalization
"to understand" webers term to describe good social research which tries to understand the meanings that individual social actors attach to various actions and events.
the therapeutic branch ofpsychology founded by sigmund freud in which free association and dream interpreation are used to explore the unconscious mind.
in Freudian psychology, the drive or instinc that desires productivity and construction
freudian psychology, the drive or instinct toward aggression or destructions
the process that causes unwanted or taboo desires to return via tics, dreams slips of the tongue, and neuroses, according to freud.
process in which socially unacceptable desires are healthyily channeled into socially acceptable expressions, according freud.
set of assumption, theories, and persepectives that make up a way of understanding social reality.
paradigm that begins with assumptions that society is unified whole that functions because of the contribution of its separate structures.
disturbance to or undersirable consequence of some aspect of the social system
the obvious intended function of a social structure for the social system.
the less obvious, perhaps uninteded functions of a social structure.
a paradigm that sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change and emphasizes a materialist view of soicety, a critical view of status quo and a dynamic model of historical quo and a dynamic model of historical change.
a system of beliefs, attitudes, and values that directs a sociaty and reproduces the status quo of the bourgeoisie
denial of thetruth on the part of the oppresed when they fail to recognize the interests of the ruling class in their ideology.
the recognition of social inequality on the part of the oppresed, leading to revolutionary action.
Marxs model of historical change, whereby two extreme posotions come into conflict and create some new third thing between them.
existing social arrangements in a dialectical model
the opposition to the existing arrangements in a dialectical model.
the new social system created out of the conflict between theisis and antitheisis in a dialectical model.
WEB doubis term for conflict felt by and about African American, who were both american. and African subject to prejudices and discrimination at the same time.
those in power in a society
A contemporary form of conflict theorgy that criticizens many diffrent systems and idologies of domination and oppression.
practical action that is taken on the basis of intellectual or theoretical understandings
paradigm that sees interaction and meaing as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interactions
theoretical persepective that assumes organism make prectical adaptions to their enviornments. Humans do this through cognition, interpreation and interactions.
theoretical paradigm that uses the metaphor of the theater to understand how individuals present themselves to others.
study of folk methods or everyday interactions, that musct be uncovered rather thans studied directly
sociological approach that looks at how we create meaning in naturally occuring conversation, often by taping conversations and examing them.
theoretical approach that looks at gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world
paradigm that propeses that categories of sexual identity are socal constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal
paradigm that suggest that social reality is diverse, pluralistic and constantly in flux.
paradigm that places trust in power of sicence and technology to create progress, solve problems and improve life.