Anatomy Chapter 4 Review ?s

  2. Collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions are called
  3. Tissue that is specialized for contraction
    muscle tissue
  4. A type of cell junction common in cardiac and smooth muscle tissues is the
    gap junction
  5. The most abundant connections between cells in the superficial layers of the skin are
  6. ___________ membranes have an epithelium that is stratified and supported by dense connective tissue
  7. Mucous secretions that coat the passageways of the digestive and respiratory tracts result from _________ secretion
  8. Matrix is a characteristic of which type of tissue?
  9. Functions of connective tissue include
    • Establishing a structural framework for the boyd
    • Storing energy reserves
    • Providing protection for delicate organs
  10. Which epithelia most easily permits diffusion?
    simple squamous
  11. The three major types of cartilage in the body are
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrous
  12. The primary function of serous membranes in the body is to
    minimize friction between opposing surfaces
  13. The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is
    appositional growth
  14. Tissue changes with age can result from
    • hormonal changes
    • improper nutrition
  15. Axons, dendrites, and a cell body are characteristic of cells located in
    neural tissue
  16. The repair process necessary to restore normal function in damaged tissues is
  17. What are the four essential functions of epithelial tissue?
    • Provides physical protection
    • Controls permeability
    • Provides sensations
    • Produces specialized secretions
  18. Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands.
    Endocrine glands secrete hormones onto the surface of the gland or directly into the surrounding fluid

    Exocrine glands secrete via ducts
  19. By what three methods do various glandular epithelial cells release their secretions?
    • Merocrine secretion
    • Apocrine secretion
    • Holocrine secretion
  20. List three basic components of connective tissues
    • Specialized cells
    • Extracellular protein fibers
    • A fluid ground substance
  21. What are the four kinds of membranes composed of epithelial and connective tissue that cover and protect other structures and tissues in the body?
    • Serous membranes
    • Mucous membranes
    • Cutaneous membrane
    • Synovial membranes
  22. What two cell populations make up neural tissue? What is the function of each?
    • Neurons- transmit electrical impulses in the form of changes in the transmembrane potential
    • Neuroglia- comprise several kinds of supporting cells and play a role in providing nutrients to neurons
  23. What is the differene beween exocine secretion and an endocrine secretion?
    • Exocrine secretions are secreted onto a surface or outward through a duct
    • Endocrine secretions are secreted by ductless glands into surrounding tissues. (hormones)
  24. A significant structural feater in the digestive system is the presence of tight jnun near the exposed surfaces of cells lining the digestive tract. Why are these junctions so important?
    Tight junctions block the passage of water or solutes between cells. In the digestive system, these junctions keep enzymes, acids, and waste products from damaging delicate underlying tissues
  25. Describe the fluid connective tissues in the human body. What are the main differences between fluid connective tissues and supporting connective tissues?
    • Fluid connective tissues have a liquid, watery matrix
    • THey differe from supporting connective tissues in that they have many soluble proteins in the matrix, and they do not include insoluble fibers
  26. Why are infections always a serious threat after a severe burn or abrasion?
    • The extensive conncections between cells formed by cell junctions, proteoglycans, and physical interlocking hold skin cells together and can deny access to chemicals or pathogens that cover their free surfaces. 
    • If the skin is damaged and the connections are broken, infection can easily occur
  27. A layer of glycoproteins and a netweork of fine protein filaments that prevents the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the connective tissue to the epithelium describes
    the basement membrane
  28. Why does damaged cartilage heal slowly?
    Cartilage is avascular, so nutrients and other molecules must diffuse to the site of injury
  29. List the similarites and differences amont the 3 types of muscles
    • Similarities:
    • Actin and myosin interactions produce contractions
    • Calcium ions trigger and sustain contractions
    • Differences:
    • skeletal muscles are relatively large, multinucleate, striated, and contract only under neural stimulation
    • Cardiac muscles have 1-5 nuclei, are interconnected in a branching netweork, and contract in response to pacemaker cell activity
    • Smooth muscles are small, spindle shaped, nonstriated, and have only one nucleus
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Anatomy Chapter 4 Review ?s