Ethics Exam 1

  1. Applied Ethics
    • the use of moral norms and concepts to resolve practical moral issues
    • the usual challenge is to employ moral principles, theories, arguments, or analyses to try to answer moral questions that confront people everyday
    • relate to professional fields like law, medicine, business, or journalism
  2. Bioethics
    • Subcategory of Applied Ethics that is focused on health care, medical science, and medical technology
    • seeks answers to tough ethical questions
    • the ethical and technical scope is wide
    • the heart is moral philosophy, but we must also understand nonmoral facts and issues 
  3. Descriptive Ethics
    • the study of morality using the methodology of science
    • the purpose is to investigate the empirical facts of morality (the beliefs, behaviors, and practices that constitute people's moral experience)
    • rather than asking "how ought we to live", it asks "how do we in fact live"
  4. Normative Ethics
    • the search for, and justification of moral standards or norms
    • most often the standards are moral principles, rules, virtues, and theories
    • the aim is to establish rationally some or all of these as proper guides for our actions and judgements
  5. Metaethics
    • study of the meaning and justification of basic moral beliefs
    • in normative, we ask whether an action is right or wrong, but in metaethics, we ask what it means for an action to be right or wrong
  6. Ethics
    • aka moral philosophy
    • study of morality using the tools and methods of philosophy
    • a reasoned way of delving into the meaning and import of moral concepts and issues and of evaluating the merits of moral judgements and standards
    • Krueger's def: study of fundamental principles that define values and determines moral duty and obligation
  7. Paternalism
    • a principle of autonomy restriction
    • the overriding of a person's actions or decision-making for her own good
    • Weak: temporarily restraining a psychotic or depressed person to prevent them from hurting themself or someone else
    • Strong: giving an experimental, potentially life-saving drug to someone without telling them or consenting with them
  8. Moral Objectivism
    the idea that at least some moral standards are objective (some should be the same for everyone, regardless of the circumstances)
  9. Moral Absolutism
    the belief that objective moral principles allow no exceptions or must be applied the same way in all cases and cultures
  10. Ethical Relativism
    • moral standards are not objective but are relative to what individuals or cultures believe
    • there simply are NO objective moral truths, only relative ones
    • moral norms are not discovered, they are made (the individual or culture decides what is wrong and right)
  11. Cultural Relativism
    • the view that right actions are those sanctioned by one's culture
    • a branch of ethical relativism
  12. Subjective Relativism
    • the view that right actions are those sanctioned by the individual
    • a branch of ethical relativism
  13. Divine Command Theory
    • right actions are those commanded by God
    • wrong actions are those forbidden by God
    • God is the author of the moral law
  14. What are the 2 valid forms of an argument?
    • affirming the antecedent
    • denying the consequent
  15. What is the argument form of affirming the antecedent?
    • If p, then q.
    • p.
    • therefore, q.
  16. What is the argument form for denying the consequent?
    • If p, then q.
    • Not q.
    • Therefore, not p.
  17. What are the 2 invalid forms of an argument?
    • affirming the consequent
    • denying the antecedent
  18. What is the argument for affirming the consequent?
    • If p, then q.
    • q.
    • Therefore, p.
  19. What is the argument for denying the antecedent?
    • If p, then q.
    • Not p.
    • Therefore, not q.
  20. Moral Argument
    • an argument whose conclusion is a moral statement: an assertion that an action is right or wrong, or a person or motive is good or bad
    • must also contain one moral premise and one non-moral premise
  21. Deductive Argument
    • intended to give logically conclusive support to their conclusions so that if the premises are true, the conclusion absolutely must be true
    • example: it is wrong to take the life of an innocent person, abortion takes the life of an innocent person; therefore, abortion is wrong
  22. Inductive Argument
    • intended to give probable support to their conclusions
    • they are not designed to support their conclusions decisively
    • if the premises are true, then the conclusion is probably true
    • example: 85% of students at UW are Republicans, Sonia is a student at UW; therefore, Sonia is probably a Republican
  23. Morality
    • concerns beliefs regarding morally right and wrong actions and morally good and bad persons or character
    • regards people's moral judgements, principles, rules, standards, and theories
  24. Beneficence
    • Do good to others
    • the benefit of the patient should be paramount or at least equal to your own benefit
  25. Nonmaleficence
    • Avoid harming others
    • First do no harm
  26. Autonomy
    • the right or state of self-governance
    • the freedom to determine one's own actions and/or behavior
  27. Fidelity
    • "covenant" of trust
    • the duty to keep committments and promises
    • implicit or explicit
  28. Veracity
    • truth telling
    • dealing honestly with patients, colleagues, and other professionals
  29. Justice
    • give to people that which they are owed 
    • allocating resources in a fair manner
    • NOT equality
Card Set
Ethics Exam 1
Exam 1 Ethics