Circulation, gas exchange, and immunity

  1. breathing
    the process of the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment, including inspiration and expiration
  2. respiratory membrane
    the membrane where the diffusion of oxygen and other gases occurs between the living cells of the body and the external environment (the atmosphere or water)
  3. respiration
    all processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells and the environment, including breathing, gas exchange, and cellular respiration
  4. trachea
    the windpipe
  5. cilia
    tiny hairlike structures found on some cells that sweep away foreign debris
  6. epiglottis
    the structure that covers the glottis (opening of the trachea) during swallowing
  7. larynx
    the voice box
  8. bronchi
    the passage from the trachea to the left and right lung
  9. bronchiole
    the smallest passageways of the respiratory tract
  10. alveoli
    sacs of the lung in which gas exchange occurs
  11. pleural membrane
    a thin membrane that surrounds the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity
  12. diaphragm
    a sheet of muscle that separates the organs of the thoracic cavity from those of the abdominal cavity
  13. intercostal muscle
    a muscle that raises and lowers the rib cage
  14. oxygen is essential to survival because...
    the cells of the body obtain energy through oxidation
  15. Trace the flow of air
    air enters the respiratory system through the nose or mouth, then it enters the pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and the bronchioles and alveoli in the lungs
  16. In the alveoli...
    gases diffuse between air and blood according to concentration gradients. Oxygen moves into the alveoli and carbon dioxide moves out of the alveoli
  17. The movement of gases into and out of the lungs is determined by...
    the difference in pressure between the atmosphere and the thoracic cavity
  18. Pressure in the thoracic cavity is regulated by
    the diaphragm
  19. the diaphragm is assisted by the movement of the
    intercostal muscles
  20. During inspiration (inhalation)
    the intercostal muscles contract, the diaphragm flattens and pulls downwards, the rib cage pulls outward, chest volume increases, pressure in lungs decreases, and air moves into the lungs
  21. During expiration (exhalation)
    the intercostal muscles relax, the diaphragm becomes dome shaped, the rib cage falls, chest volume decreases, pressure in the lungs increases, and air moves out of the lungs
  22. hemoglobin
    the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells
  23. oxyhemoglobin
    the hemoglobin that is bound to oxygen
  24. carbonic anhydrase
    an enzyme found in red blood cells that speeds the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid
  25. buffer
    a substance capable of neutralizing acids and bases, this maintaining the original pH of the solution
  26. Gases diffuse from
    an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
  27. the partial pressure of oxygen is
    highest in the atmosphere and lowest in the veins and tissues
  28. oxygen diffuses from the atmosphere into
    alveoli and then into the blood
  29. hemoglobin bonds to oxygen molecules to form
  30. in the capillaries hemoglobin and oxygen
    dissociate and oxygen diffuses into the tissues
  31. partial pressure of carbon dioxide is
    the highest in the tissues and veins and lowest in the atmosphere
  32. carbonic acid is formed from? what is its purpose?
    • carbon dioxide+water+plasma=carbonic acid
    • this decreases the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood, ensuring that carbon dioxide continues to diffuse into the blood
  33. carbonic acid dissociates into...
    HCO-3 and H+
  34. Hemoglobin combines with H+ to...
    release oxygen and act as a buffer
  35. In the lungs H+ and HCO3- combine to
    form carbon dioxide and water
  36. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the
    blood into alveoli
  37. carbon dioxide is eliminated
    through exhalation
  38. to help maintain equilibrium
    chemical receptors detect a change in gas levels and send a message to increase or decrease breathing rate
  39. chemoreceptor
    a specialized nerve receptor that is sensitive to specific chemicals
  40. bronchitis
    an inflammation of the bronchial tubes
  41. emohysemsa
    a respiratory disorder characterized by an overinflation of the alveoli
  42. bronchial asthma
    a respiratory disorder characterized by reversible narrowing of the bronchial passages
  43. breathing movements are regulated by
    the medulla and by chemoreceptors in the carotid artery and the aorta
  44. all respiratory disorders
    decrease oxygen delivery to the tissues. healthy lungs are much more efficient at gas exchange than unhealthy lungs are
  45. lung tumours
    reduce the surface area for diffusion
  46. cardiac muscle
    the involuntary muscle of the heart
  47. smooth muscle
    the involuntary muscle found in the lining if many organs
  48. skeletal muscle
    the voluntary muscle that makes the bones of the skeleton move
  49. artery
    a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
  50. pulse
    change in the diameter of the arteries following heart contractions
  51. autonomic nervous system
    the part of the nervous system that controls the motor nerves that regulate equilibrium and that us not under conscious control
  52. vasoconstriction
    the narrowing of blood vessels, allowing less blood to the tissues
  53. vasodilation
    the widening of blood vessels, allowing more blood to the tissues
  54. atherosclerosis
    a degeneration of blood vessels caused by the accumulation of fat deposits in the inner wall
  55. arteriosclerosis
    a group of disorders that cause the blood vessels to thicken, harden, and lose their elasticity
  56. aneurysm
    a bulge in the weakened wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery
  57. Carry blood away from the heart
  58. vein
    a blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart
  59. the site of fluid and gas exchange between the blood and the cells
  60. pressure in the veins is much lower than in the
  61. what helps venous blood flow?
    one-way valves and skeletal muscles
  62. septum
    a wall of muscle that separates the right and left sides of the heart
  63. pulmonary circulatory system
    the system of blood vessels that carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart
  64. systemic circulatory system
    the system of blood vessels that carries oxygenated blood to the tissues of the body and deoxygenated blood back to the heart
  65. atrium (plural: atria)
    a thin-walled chamber of the heart that receives blood from veins
  66. ventrical
    a muscle, thick walled chamber of the heart that delivers blood to the arteries
  67. atrioventricular (AV) valve
    a heart valve that prevents the backflow of blood from a ventrical into an atrium
  68. semilunar valve
    a valve that prevents the backflow of blood from an artery into a ventricle
  69. aorta
    the largest artery in the body; carries oxygenated blood to the tissues
  70. coronary artery
    an artery that supplies the cardiac muscle with oxygen and nutrients
  71. myogenic muscle
    muscle that contracts without external nerve stimulation
  72. sinoatrial (SA) node
    a small mass of tissue in the right atrium that originates the impulses stimulating the heartbeat
  73. atrioventricular (AV) node
    a small mass of tissue in the right atrioventricular region through which impulses from the sinoatrial node are passed to the ventricles
  74. Purkinjie fibre
    a nerve fibre that branches and carries electrical impulses throughout the ventricles
  75. sympathetic nervous system
    a division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for stress
  76. parasympathetic nervous system
    a division of the autonomic nervous system that returns the body to normal resting levels following adjustments to stress
  77. diastole
    relaxation (dilation) of the heart, during which the atria fill with blood
  78. systole
    contraction of the heart, during which blood is pushed out of the heart
  79. Lubb-dubb sound is caused by
    the AV valves and semilunar valves closing in turn as blood is pushed from the atria through the ventricles and out of the heart. If the valves do not close completely, the heart compensates by beating faster and pumping blood with more force
  80. cardiac output
    the amount of blood pumped from the heart each minute
  81. stroke volume
    the quantity of blood pumped with each beat of the heart
  82. sphygmomanometer
    a device used to measure blood pressure
  83. hypothalamus
    a region of a vertebrate's brain responsible for coordinating many nerve and hormone functions
  84. thermoregulation
    maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function efficiently
  85. Blood pressure is
    the force of blood on the walls of the arteries. It is measured as systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mmHg
  86. blood pressure s higher in vessels closer to the
  87. increased cardiac output increases
    blood pressure
  88. if arteries are constricted
    blood flow is slower and blood pressure is higher
  89. extracellular fluid (ECF)
    fluid that occupies the space between cells and tissues; includes plasma and interstitial fluid
  90. filtration
    the selective movement of materials through capillary walls by a pressure gradient
  91. lymph
    the fluid found in lymph vessels that contains some proteins that have leaked through capillary walls
  92. lymph node
    a mass of tissue that stores lymphocytes and removes bacteria and foreign particles from the lymph
  93. lymphocyte
    a white blood cell that produces antibodies
  94. spleen
    a lymphoid organ that acts as a reservoir for blood and filtering site for lymph
  95. thymus gland
    a lymphoid organ in which T lymphocytes mature
  96. spleen
    a lymphoid organ that acts as a reservoir for blood and a filtering site for lymph
  97. thymus gland
    a lymphoid organ in which T lymphocytes mature
  98. The movement of water between blood and the ECF is regulated by
    fluid pressure and osmotic pressure
  99. Why does water move from the capillaries to the ECF?
    Water moves from an area of high pressure, the capillaries, to an area of lower pressure, the ECF
  100. Proteins and dissolved minerals in the blood cause
    fluid from the ECF to move into the blood by osmosis
  101. Proteins in the ECF are returned to the circulatory system by
    the lymphatic system
  102. Lymph nodes house
    white blood cells that filter bacteria
  103. Red bone marrow is where all types of what are produced?
    blood cells
  104. The spleen stores and purifies
  105. What does the spleen release in response to low blood pressure or low oxygen levels in blood?
    red blood cells
  106. plasma
    the fluid portion of the blood (55% of blood)
  107. erythrocyte
    a red blood cell that contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen (45% of blood)
  108. anemia
    the reduction in blood oxygen due to low levels of hemoglobin or poor red blood cell production
  109. leukocyte
    a white blood cell (less then 1% of blood)
  110. What are the plasma proteins?
    albumins, globulins, fibrinogens
  111. What is the function of albumins?
    osmotic balance
  112. What is the function of globulins?
    antibodies, immunity
  113. what is the function of fibrinogens?
    blood clotting
  114. platelet
    a component of blood responsible for initiating blood clotting
  115. thrombus
    a blood clot that forms within a blood vessel and blocks it
  116. embolus
    a blood clot that dislodges and carried by the circulatory system to another part of the body
  117. anigen
    a substance, usually protein, that stimulates the formation of an antibody
  118. antibody
    a protein formed within the blood that reacts with an antigen
  119. agglutination
    the clumping of blood cells caused by antigens and antibodies
  120. What is the differences in blood types?
    type A has the A antigen, type B has the B antigen, type AB has both, and type O has neither
  121. What blood type is the universal recipient?
  122. What blood type is the universal donor?
  123. What is the Rhesus (Rh) factor?
    It is another potential source of blood incompatibility. It is another antigen.
  124. Phagocytosis
    the process by which a white blood cell engulfs and chemically destroys a microbe
  125. Macrophage
    a phagocytic white blood cells fount in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen and liver
  126. pus
    a thick liquid composed of protein fragments from digested leukocytes and microbes
  127. inflammatory response
    localized nonspecific response triggered when tissue cells are injured by bacteria or physical injury, characterized by swelling, heat, redness, and pain
  128. complement protein
    a plasma protein that helps defend against invading microbes by tagging the microbe for phagocytosis, puncturing cell membranes, or triggering formation of mucous coating
  129. T cell
    a lymphocyte, manufactured in the bone marrow and processed by the thymus gland, that identifies and attacks foreign substances
  130. B cell
    a lymphocyte, made and processed in the bone marrow, that produces antibodies
  131. receptor site
    a port along a cell membrane into which hormones, nutrients, and other needed materials fit
  132. helper T cell
    a T cell with receptors that bind to fragments of antigens
  133. lymphokine
    a protein produced by the T cells that act as a chemical messenger between other T cells and B cells
  134. killer T cell
    a T cell that destroys microbes, body cells infected with viruses, and mutated cells by puncturing cell membranes
  135. suppressor T cell
    a T cell that turns off the immune system
  136. memory B cell
    a B cell that retains information about the shape of an antigen
  137. Skin and mucous membranes provide
    physical barriers that prevent most infectious organisms from entering the body
  138. pluripotent cell
    a cell that is capable of developing into a number of specialized cell, such as neuron or muscle cell
  139. abnormal functioning of the immune system can cause two types of problems:
    immunodeficiency disease and inappropriate immune response (allergic reactions and autoimmune diseases)
  140. Autoimmune diseases occur when
    lymphocytes treat the body's cells as forgein
  141. cardiac arrest
    the heart suddenly beats dangerously fast and then cannot pump blood to the body. Without immediate medical treatment, cardiac arrest will lead to sudden cardiac death
  142. heart attack
    occurs when a blood clot partially or completely blocks a coronary artery, causing damage to a portion of the heart
  143. heart failure
    is a condition that weakens the heart muscle, usually over time, causing the heart to pump less effectively
  144. Edema
    is swelling caused by disruptions in the flow of lymph
  145. What is fibrinogen converted to in a cascade of complex reactions?
  146. Surfactant
    keeps alveoli from sticking together and collapsing
  147. Pleural membrane
    keeps the lungs and ribs together
  148. Breathing control centers are in two regions of the brain:
    the medulla oblongata and the pons
  149. The medulla regulates the
    rate and depth of breathing in response to pH changes in the cerebrospinal fluid
  150. The pons regulate
    the breathing tempo
  151. Sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries monitor
    O2 and CO2 concentrations in the blood
  152. How many molecules of O2 can one hemoglobin carry?
  153. Innate immunity
    is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth
  154. Acquired immunity
    or adaptive immunity, develops after exposure to agents
  155. Following an injury mast cells release
    histamine, which promotes changes in blood vessels
  156. Increase in local blood supply allows
    more phagocytes and antimicrobacterial proteins to enter tissues
  157. Fever
    is a systemic inflammatory response triggered by pyrogens released by macrophages and toxins from pathogens
  158. septic shock
    is a life threatening condition caused by an overwhelming inflammatory response
  159. All cells in the body (except red blood cells) have a class
    1 MHC protein on their surface
  160. Cancerous cells or infected cells no longer express this protein
    1 MHC
  161. What attacks damaged cells?
    natural killer (NK) cells
  162. A single B or T cell have about 100, 000 identical
    antigen receptors
  163. Acquired immunity has 2 branches, what are they?
    • Hormonal immune response
    • Cell-mediated immune response
  164. Hormonal immune responce
    involves activation and clonal selection of B cells, resulting in production of secreted antibodies
  165. Cell-mediated immune response
    involves activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells
Card Set
Circulation, gas exchange, and immunity
bio circulation, gas exchange, and immunity