ch 110 study guide

  1. structural variations of he amino acid tyrosine; thyroxine, epinephrine
  2. chainss of amino acids; epetides are the short chains.
  3. made from cholesterol;cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone
  4. When are Hormones secreted
    when there is a need for their effect.
  5. The secretion of most hormones is regulated by
    negative feedback mechanisms
  6. Posterior Pituatary stores hormones produced by
    • hypothalamus:
    • ADH
    • Oxytocin
  7. increases water reabsorption by the kideys, decreases sweating, in large amounts causes vasoconstriction which results in decrease urination and increase blood volume which increase BP
    ADH: Antidiuertic Hormone
  8. ADH stimulates
    nerve impulses from hypothalamus when body water decreases
  9. Oxytocin stimulates
    • contraction of myometrium of uterus during labor and release milk from mammary glands.
    • nerve impulses from hypothalamus as cervix is stretched or as infant sucks on nipple.
  10. Neurohypophysis is another term for
    Posterior Pituitary
  11. Adenohypophysis is another term for
    Anterior Pituitary
  12. Which pituatary secretions are regulated by releasing hormones from the hypothalamus
    Anterior Pituitary
  13. increases amino acid transport into cells and increases protein synthesis; increases rae of mitosis; increases use of fats for energy
  14. Stimulus of GH
    GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
  15. increases secretion of thyroxine and T3 by the thryoid.
  16. Stimulus of TSH
    TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
  17. increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex
  18. Stimulus of ACTH (adrenocorticotropin hormone)
    CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
  19. initiates and maintains milk production by the mammary glands.
  20. stimulus of Prolactin
    PRH (prolactin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
  21. In women: initiates development of ova in ovarian follicles and secrion of estrogen by follicle cells.
    In men: initiates sperm development in the testes.
    FSH (follicle stimulating hormone
  22. Stimulus of FSH
    GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
  23. In women: stiumulates ovulation, transforms mature follicle into corpus luteum and stimulates secretion of progesterone.
    In men: stimultes secretion of testosterone by the testes.
    LH (lutenizing hormone)
  24. Stimulus of LH
    GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
  25. is produced by thyroid follicles. increase use of all food types for energy and increase protein synthesis. Also is necessary fro normal physical, mental and sexual development.
    Thyroxine (T4 ) and T3
  26. Produced by parafollicular cells. decreases reabsorption of calcium from bones and lowers blood calcium level.
  27. stimulus of calcitonin
  28. How many parathyroid glands are there
    • 4.
    • 2 on posterior of each lobe of thyroid
  29. increases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to the blood; increases absorption of clcium and phosphate by the small intestine; increase reaborption of calcium and excertion f phosphate by the kidneys, anc activates Vitamin D which results in
    • PTH (parathyroid hormone)
    • and results in raises blood calcium and lowers blood phosphate levels
  30. Stimulus of PTH
  31. Inhibitor of PTH
  32. organ that extends from curve of duodenum to the speen. Islets of  Langerhands contain apha cells and beta cells
  33. is secreted by alpha cells. Stimulates liver to change phycogen to glucose also increases use of fats and amoino acids for energy.
  34. what is the results of glucagon
    raises blood glucose level.
  35. Stimulus of glucagon
  36. is secreted by beta cells. Increases use of glucose by cells to produce energy; stimulates liver and muscles to hcange clucose to glycogen; increases cellular intake of fatty acids and amino acid to use for synthesis of lipids and proteins.
  37. results of insulin
    lowers blood glucose level
  38. stimulus of insulin
  39. inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon
  40. Organ on top of kidney
    Adrenal Glands: inner adrenal medulla and outer adrenal cortex
  41. produces catecholamines in stress situatuions
    Adrenal Medulla
  42. Norepinephrine and epinephrine is from which part of the adrenal glands
    inner adrenal medulla
  43. stimulates vasoconstriction and raises blood pressure
  44. increases heart rate and force
    causes vasocontriction in skin and viscera
    vasodialtion in skeltal muscles
    dilates bronchioles
    slows peristalsis
    causes liver to change gycogen to glucose
    increases use of fats for energy
    increases rate of cell respiration
  45. Stimulus of epinephrine
    sypmathetic impulses from the hypothalamus
  46. produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and very small amounts of sex hormones.
    adrenal cortex
  47. what are the hormones from the adrenal cortex
    aldosterone and cortisol
  48. increases reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium by the kidneys.
  49. maintains normal blood pH, blood volume, and Bp.
  50. Stimulus of Aldosterone
    • decreased blood sodium or elevated blood potassium
    • decreased blood volume
    • decreased blood pressure (activates the renin-angiostensinmechanism of the kidneys)
  51. increases use of fats and amino acids for energy
    decreases use of glucose to conserve glucose for the brain
    antinflammatory effect by blocking effects of histamine and stablizes lysosomes to prevent excessive tissue damage
  52. Stimulus of Cortisul
    ACTH from hypothalamus during physiological stress
  53. Hormone produced by follicle cells.
    Promotes maturation of ovum
    stimulates growth of blood vessels in endometrium
    stimulates development of 2ndry sex characteristics
    growth of duct system of mamamary glands
    growth of uterus
    fat deposition
    promotes closure of epiphyses of long bones
    lowers blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides
  54. Stimulus of estrogen
    FSH from anterior pituitary
  55. Hormone produced by the corpus luteum
    Promotes storage of glycogen and futher growth of blood vessels in the endometrium
    promotes growth of secretory cells of mammary glands
  56. stimulus of progesterone
    LH form anterior pituitary
  57. inhibits secretion of FSH
  58. hormone produced by interstitial cells
    promotes maturation of sperm in testes
    stimulates development of 2ndry sex characteristics growth of reproductive organs, facial and body hair, larynx, skeltal muscles
    promots closure of epiphyses of long bones
  59. stimulus of testosterone
    LH from the anterior pituatary
  60. produced by sustentacular cells
    inhibits secretio nof FSH to maintain a constant rate of sperm production
  61. stimulus for testosterone
    LH from anterior pituatary
  62. hormone secreted by the pineal gland during darkness; brings on sleep
  63. hormone synthesized by cells from the phospholipids of their cell memebranes
    exert their effects locally
    are involved in inflammation and pain, reproduction, nutrient metabolism, changes in blood vessels, blood clotting
  64. How hormones exert their effects on their target organs a hormone must first bond to what
    a receptor or target cell
  65. what usually gond to receptor of the cell membnrand and what is the hormone called
    • protein hormones and
    • first messenger
  66. Tfhe hormone recptor gonding activates whaty enbzyme
    adenbyl cyclase
  67. what hormones are soluble in the lipis of the cell membrane and diffuse easily into a target cell
    steroid hormones
  68. steroid-protein complex enters the nucleus and activates certain genes, which intiate what process
    protein synthesis process
Card Set
ch 110 study guide
ch 10 study guide