1. Open airway. 2. attempt to give two ventilations - if they fail, reposition head and try again. 3. administer abd thrust/chest compressions. 4. Attempt finder sweeps only if foreign body is visualized. a. If removed, resume vent. b. If not, continue abd. and/or chest compressions and sweeps. 5. Visualize airway with laryngoscope and remove foreign body with Magill forceps and resume vent's.
What is COPD?
Chronic bronchitis AND emphysema together.
Name the ten lung fields.
6 in front = 2 at Clavicle, 2 @ nipples, 2 @ bases
4 in back = 2 under scapula, 2 bases
1. Refers to inflammatory changes & excessive mucus prod. in the bronchial tree. 2. Characterized by hyperplasia & hypertrophy of mucus producing glands. 3. Results from prolonged exposure to irritants. 4. Bronchi are filled with excess mucus.
What is hyperplasia?
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in size
What would be some physical exam findings for a Chronic Bronchitis pt?
overweight & always out of breath
thick & goopy (ronchi) LS
Hepatic (Liver) congestion (engorged Liver and JVD)
"Blue Bloater" large and cyanotic
What is the clinical definition of Chronic Bronchitis?
Clinically diagnosed by the presence of a cough with sputum production occuring on most days for at least 2 months in the year and for at least 2 consecutive years.
Alveoli are not seriously affected (no structural change)
Diffusion remains relatively normal
What is the pathophys. of CB?
Results from an increase in mucus-secreting cells in the resp. tree
Alveoli relatively unaffected.
Decreased alveolar ventillation
What are findings during assessement of CB pt?
Frequent resp. infections
Productive cough - color, smell, viscosity
What is "shunt" in V/Q?
Blood circulating/air not
What is Emphysema?
an anatomical desc. of patho changes in the lung
end stage of a process that progresses SLOWLY for many yrs.
Permanent abnormal enlargement of the air spaces beyond term. bronchioles (structural change - perm.)
Destruction of alveoli (struct/perm)
Failure of supporting structures to maintain alveolar integrity.
Emphysema results in:
reduced alv func surface area
red. elasticity, leading to air trapping
incr. residual volume while vital capacity stays normal
assoc. red. in arterial PO2 - incr. red blood cell production and polycythemia
decr. in alveolar memb. surf area and # of pulm cap's which decreases area for gas exchange and incr. resistance to pulm bld flw
expiration becomes a muscular act
chest becomes rigid, barrell shaped
use of accessory mucls in neck, chest and abd
Assessment of Emphysema pt reveals:
barrell chest due to incr. wrk of brthng
prolonged expiration and rapid rest phase
thin, emaciated (burning calories w/ WOB)
Pink skin due to extra red cell prodctn (body incr. RBC's over time to compensate w/ more O2)