Test 09/24/12 Detection and Diagnosis

  1. What are the 2 most imporant and effective strategies of saving lives?
    Prevention and early screening.
  2. Define Sign
    an objective finding as perceived by the EXAMINER
  3. Define symptom
    subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the PATIENT.
  4. Define syndrome
    set of signs or symptoms arising from common cause.
  5. Define diagnosis
    identification of a disease or condition
  6. When the patient first sees the doc what happens?
    The Interview which is the most powerful diagnostic tool of the physician.
  7. What is the most powerful tool of the physician?
    The interview
  8. What happens during an interview?
    • The doc learns the chronological events and symtoms of patient
    • Doc determines patient's chief complaints and current status
    • Doc establishes the physician patient relationship
    • Verbal and nonverbal cues are assessed. (what the patient says or doesnt say)
  9. Who do the medical records technically belong to?
    The hospital NOT the patient.
  10. How can a patient obtain medical records?
    by subpoena to a court of law
  11. Define Inspection
    the use of sight to observe like color of skin, lesions, asymmetry on the surface of skin.
  12. Define Palpation
    use of touch to acquire info. like feeling the axiallry lymphnodes
  13. Define Percussion
    act of striking or tapping patient gently. Like looking for kidney infections or where the lungs and abdomen begin.
  14. Define Auscultation
    act of listening to sounds in the body. LIke using the stethoscope to listen to the heart or lungs, etc.
  15. Define Vital Signs
    temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respirations
  16. Define Rhythm
    regularity of breathing. see if patient is slow or rapid breathing.
  17. What are the 4 things important when testing?
    • prevalence
    • incidence
    • sensitivity
    • specificity
  18. Define prevalence
    Probability of the disease in the entire poplulation at one time.
  19. Define Incidence
    • probability that a patient without disease develops the disease during an interval
    • examples
    • 1 in 8 women develops breat cancer and 1 in 8 men develops prostate cancer.
  20. Define Sensitivity
    Probability of a positive test among patients with disease.
  21. Define Specificity
    Probability of a negative test among patients without disease.
  22. Yearly mammograms start at age
  23. Clinical breast exams start
    • every 3 years for 20-30 year olds and
    • every year for 40 and up
  24. Self breast exams should start at age
  25. When is screening with an MRI recommended?
    when a woman has a strong family history.
  26. Beginning at age 50 men and women should have 1 of the following done
    FOBT or FIT every year
  27. What is FOBT
    fecal occult blood test
  28. What is FIT
    fecal immunochemical test
  29. What age should men and women have a FSIG every 5 years
  30. What is FSIG
    flexible sigmoidoscopy
  31. What age should men and women have annual FOBT, FIT, and a FSIG every 5 years
  32. What age should men and women have a double contrast BE every 5 years
  33. At what age should men and women have a colonoscopy every 10 years?
  34. Starting at age 50 men should have what test done annually by a physician?
    PSA test and DRE
  35. What is a PSA
    a blood test for the prostate. Prostate Specific Antigen
  36. What is DRE
    digital rectal exam
  37. Who should start having the PSA and DRE at age 45?
    African American men or men with a strong family history.
  38. What screening should begin 3 years after a women begins vaginal intercourse but no later than 21?
    Cervial screening.
  39. Note:
    Cervial screening should be done annually until age 30 and then can be dropped to every 2-3 years if multiple negative tests have resulted.
  40. After menopause there should be no vaginal bleeding, if there is a women needs to report right away because it could be
    endometrial cancer.
  41. What is Nuclear Imaging
    This is like a stress test or a PET scan. The patient is injected with a radioactive material.
  42. What is a CT scan
    Computed Tomography is where the patient is put through a doughnut type tube and a camera goes 360 around them taking pictures. These are great for bone or a mass in the lungs.
  43. What is a MRI
    Magnetic resonance imaging and is magnetic so it has no radiation and is better for the brains scans or tissue scans
  44. What is an ultrasound
    This gives off no radiation and just works off waves. This is one we do not use too much
Card Set
Test 09/24/12 Detection and Diagnosis
Test 09/24/12 Detection and Diag Chapter 5