day 6

  1. what causes the vesicles to move to the presynaptic membrane?
    influx of Ca2+
  2. what does block calciums lead to?
    less NT fired
  3. What happens when experimentaly lowering the concentrations of Ca2 around the terminal?
    reduces amount of NT released
  4. Who discovered NT?
    Otto Loewi
  5. WHta was Loewi  discovery name?
  6. In what form do vesiscle release NT?
  7. Receptor
    proteins in the membrane of post-synaptic cell that NT molecules bind to them
  8. Receptors will only...
    bind to specific NTs
  9. 3 types of receptors


  10. overview of autoreceptors
    - self-regulation

    -they are positioned on the pre-synapic cleft

    - when NT is released from Presynaptic, it binds to its autoreceptor cauing inhibation or stimulation of additional release
  11. overview of Ionotropic receptors
    -when NT binds to these receptors, channel opens

    -can quickly depolarize or hyperpolarize the resting membrane
  12. Metabotropic receptors
    -more prevalent than iontropic

    • -when NT bind to them cascade of intracellular events occur.
    • *G-protein that is attached to it, is relased and acts on other elements
  13. 2 ways of stopping neurotransmission
    -reuptake and enzymatic degradation
  14. Reuptake
    process is very rapid, once released, the NT are transported back into the pre-synaptic cell
  15. Enzymatic degradation
    enzymes can interact with certain NTs. When they do, enzymes destroy NTs form from preventing them from going to a receptor.
  16. Enzymes
    proteins that either stimulate or inhibit biochemical reactions without being effected by them
  17. metabolites
    - broken down bits of NTs

    -can be taken back into the pre-synaptic membrane for synthesis .
  18. four types of small NTs
    -amino acids


    -soluble gases

  19. Amino acids



    -gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)

    *these NTs are fashioned out of molecules from our diet
  20. Amino acids- Glutamate
    most prevalent excitatory NT in the mamalian central nervous system
  21. Amino Acids- GABA
    most prevalent inhibitory NT in the mamalian central nervous system
  22. where do amino acids come from?
    from foods that we eat
  23. Nt- small molecules- Monoamines
    -made from just one single amino acid

    -less targeted than amino acid transmitters, they are relased more diffusely throughout the brain
  24. Nt- small molecules- types of Monoamines


    • -epinephrine
    • * all 3 synthesized from Tyrosine

    • -serotonin
    • * synthesized from trytophan= lot of tryptophan in trukey
  25. Nt- small molecules- 2 types of Soluble gases
    -nitric oxide and carbon monoxide
  26. Nt- small molecules- SOluble gases
    -they are produced in cytoplam then diffused out of cell

    - they enter post-synaptic cell and trigger second messenger cascades
  27. Nt- small molecules- Axetylcholine
    it is a NT released by neurons on to muscles
  28. NT- Large peptides
    -far too many to list

    -plays role in lots of aspects of behavior such as feeding, drinking, and sex
  29. Agonist
    mimic effects of an endogenous NT by binding to its receptor and causing the same response
  30. Antagonist
    blocks the effects of an endogenous NT by binding to its receptor and preventing any NT from binding
  31. what NT does Benzines mimic?
    agnoist, GABA
Card Set
day 6
day 6: chemical signaling