Amer Gov Civil Liberties and rights

  1. Civil Liberties 
    legal and constitutional rights that protect individuals from arbitrary acts of government. Civil liberties include freedom of speech and garantees of a fair trial.
  2. Civil rights
     Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government official s or individuals. Civil rights include laws prohibiting racial and gender discrimination
  3. Selective incorporation
     the case-by-case process by which liberites listed in the Bill of Rights have been applied to the states using the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. 
  4. Establishment Clause
     A provision of the First Amendment that prohibits Congresss from establishing an official government-sponsored religon
  5. Free exercise clause
     a provision fo the First Amendment that garantees each person the right to believe what he or she wants. However, a religion cannot make an act legal that would othersie be illegal.
  6. Clear and Present danger test
    Judicial interpretationof the First Amendment that governmetn may not ban speech unless it poses an imminent threat to society.
  7. Writ of Habeas corpus 
    A court order directin that a prisoner be brought before a court and that the court officers show cause why the prisoner should not be released.
  8. Bill of Attainder
     A legislative act that provides for the punishment of a person without a court trial.
  9. Expost Facto Law
    a law applied to an act committed before the law was enacted.
  10. Exclusionary rule
     Supreme court guideline that prohibits evidence obtained by illegal serches or seizurs form being admitted in court. 
  11. Miranda Warnings 
    Warnings that police must read to suspects prior to questioning that advises them of their rights
  12. Strict Scrutiny
     Supreme court rule that classification by race and ethnic background is inherently suspect and mustbe justified by a "compelling public interest"
  13. Affirmative action
     A policy requiring federal agencies, universites and most employers to take positive steps to remedy the effects of past discrimination
Card Set
Amer Gov Civil Liberties and rights