Amer Gov KT Pres Elec Bureucracy

  1. Closed primary
    A primary in which voters are required to identif a party preference before the elction and are not allowed to split their ticket. 
  2. Frontloading
    The recent pattern of states holding primaries early in order to maximize their media attention and political influence. Three-fourths of the presidenial primaries are now held between February and mid-march
  3. Soft money
    contributions to politiclal parties for party-building activitives. Soft money contributions are used to circumvent limits on hard money.
  4. 527 Group
    A tax-exempt organization created to influence the politica process; 527 groups are not regulated by the Federal Election Commission because they do not coordinate their activites with a candidate or party.
  5. Veto 
    The president's constituional power to reject a bill passed by Congress. Congress many override the veto with a two-thirds vote in each chamber. 
  6. Line-item veto
    The power to veto specific dollar amounts or line items from major congressional spending bills. The supreme Court stuck downt he line-item veto as an unconstituitional expansionof the president's veto power.
  7. Executive agreement
     A pact between the president and a head of a foreignstae. Executive agreements do not have to be approved by the Senate. However, unlike treaties, executive agreements are not part of U.S. law and are not binding of futere presidents.
  8. Executive priviliege
    the presidents' power to refuse to disclose confidential information. In United Stes v Nixon (1974), the Supreme Court ruled that there is no constitutional garantee of unqualified executive privilege.
  9. Lame-duck period
    the period of time in which the president's term is about to come to and end. Presidents typically have less influence during a lame-duck period.
  10. Bureaucracy
    A large, complex organizationof appointed officials.
  11. Executive order
     a directive, order, or regulation issued by the president. Executive orders are based on constitutional or statutory authority and ahave the force of law. 
  12. Iron triangle
     An alliance among an administrative agency, an interset group, and a conessionl commmittee. Each member of the iron triangle provides key services, information, or policy for the others. 
  13. Issue network
    A network that includes polic experts, media pundits, congressional staff member,s an interest groups who regularly debate an issue.
  14. Policy agenda 
    A set of issues and problems that polic makers consider important. The mass media play an important role in influencing the issues which receive public attention.
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Amer Gov KT Pres Elec Bureucracy