1. cytokines
    • small secreted proteins
    • mediate and regulate immune response
  2. interferons (IFN)
    • produced in response to viral infection (INF-a, INF-b)
    • produced upon activation of the immune respone (INF-gamma)
  3. lymphokines
    cytokines made by lymphocytes
  4. chemokines
    • cytokines with chemotactic activities
    • attracks leukocytes to infection sites
    • associated with inflammatory response
  5. interleukins (IL)
    cytokines made by one leukocyte which act on othr leukocytes
  6. antigen presenting cells (APC)
    displays proteins of a foreign cell on its surface (epitope) to alarm and activate other immune cells
  7. different types of leukocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • monocytes (dendritic cells, macrophages)
    • lymphocytes (B and T cells and Natural Killer cells)
  8. neutrophil

    known as a polymorphonuclear leukocytes or "seg"

    migrates from the from blood to infection site in response to chemotactic factors

    recognizes and binds to immunoglobulin and complement coated via receptors on its surface
  9. eosinophil
    • phagocyte
    • relases toxic contents of granules to burn holes in cells
    • primary role: kill parasites
    • minor role: against bacteria
    • accumulate in the face of an allergic reaction
  10. Basophil
    • not a phagocyte
    • contain heparin and larg amount of histamine
    • play a role in Type 1 hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction
  11. moncytes
    • phagocytes that circulate in the blood
    • develop into (macrophages, dendritic cells)
  12. macrophage
    • phagocytosis
    • antigen presentation to T-cells
    • bind to immunoglobulin via cell surface receptor for IgG
    • bind to complements
    • secrete cytokins
    • activated by T cells and cytokines
  13. dendritic cell
    • phagocytosis
    • most efficient antigen presenters
    • determines nature of T-cell response
    • secrete cytokines
  14. lymphocytes
    • natural killer cells
    • circulate in blood and lymp
    • no specific surface markers
    • B or T cells
  15. B cells
    • indruce antibody production
    • presents Af to T-cells
  16. T cells
    • contain surface receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen on the surface of other cells
    • basis of cell-mediated immunity
    • CD8+ and CD4+
  17. CD8+ T cells
    • cytotoxic cells
    • recognize Ag presented by APC
    • kell cells expressing appropriate Ag
    • release lymphotoxins which cause cell lysis
    • down regulate activity of other cells
  18. CD4+
    • helper cells
    • coordinate immune response by communitcating with other cells
    • secrete cytokines - stimulate cytotoxic T cells and B cells to grow and differentiate
    • activate macrophages
  19. Memory T cells
    recognize and respond to an antigen once it's inhaved and been repelled
  20. Memory B cells
    recognize and produce antibody to an antigen once it has invaded and been repelled
  21. Immunoglobulin (Ig)
    • glycoprotien
    • produced in response to a specific antigen
    • known as antibodies - major role in humoral immunity
    • produced by plasma cells

    • may act as:
    • antigen receptors on the surface of B cells
    • antibodies that inactivate antigens
  22. IgG
    • most common
    • activates complement
    • binds to phagocytic cells surfaces
    • transferred via the placenta
  23. IgM
    • fist Ab produced in response to antigen
    • pentamic mlcl
    • receptor on B cell surface
    • most efficeint Ab for activating complement
  24. IgA
    • exists as monomer, dimer, trimer, and multimer
    • concentrates in body fluids to guard agains entrances to body
  25. IgE
    • protects agains parasites
    • binds to mast cell surfaces adn elicits allergic response
    • responsible for anaphylactic hypersensitiveity reactions
  26. IgD
    acts as a B cell receptor to intiate B cell response
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Dr. Schullo