1. If the sputum collected from a patient with pneumonia is absent of organisms after a gram stain, then this suggests a pneumonia caused by what pathogens? (think: L.a.M.M.P)
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • a virus
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • PCP
  2. _____ (3 words) with a  _____ (2 words) is a helpful clinical pattern when trying to diagnose pneumonia.
    foul smelling sputum with a rusty color
  3. What are some useful "special" stains to use when sampling the sputum of a pneumonia patient?
    • acid-fast bacteria (for TB)
    • Giemsa, GMS or Toluidine blue (for PCP)
  4. True or false. A bronchoscopy is not a very effective diagnostic tool for pneumonia.
    True (may introduce oral flora into the bronchi or lungs)
  5. What are the 2 benefits of taking a blood sample to diagnose a pneumonia patient?
    • proves etiology
    • provides susceptibility of organism
  6. True or false. A chest X-ray can be used as a diagnostic tool in terms of the etiology of infection in a pneumonia patient.
    False, a chest X-ray cannot be used as a diagnostic tool in terms of the etiology of infection in a pneumonia patient.
  7. What are the 2 most "classic" clinical symptoms seen in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)?
    • productive cough
    • fever
  8. True or false. Neutropenia is a poor prognostic sign if seen in a community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patient.
  9. What organism is the most common cause for community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly or in someone who has been infected with influenza recently?

    C. Staphylococcus aureus
  10. If a patient is suffering from aspiration pneumonia, is it necessary to perform a sputum culture?
    No, because the sputum may be contaminated with mixed anaerobes and epithelial cells of the oral cavity and give a false positive.
  11. True or false. Gram negative organisms, like K. pneumoniae, E. coli, and P. mirabilis, are not typically seen as causative agents in community-acquired pneumonia.
  12. What are the 6 most common viruses that cause community-acquired pneumonia? (think: I.V. C.R.A.P.)
    • Influenza
    • Varicella-zoster
    • CMV
    • RSV
    • Adenovirus
    • Parainfluenza-3
  13. How is "atypical pneumonia" best identified?
    absence of organisms on gram stain
  14. What are the 2 main pathogens involved in "atypical pneumonia"?
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • Chlamydia pneumoniae
  15. What are the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia?
    • having a disease state with altered consciousness
    • abnormal gag reflex and swallowing
    • may lead to lung abscess
    • antianaerobic treatment
  16. What are the 2 most important factors involved in the acquisition of nosocomial pneumonia?
    • prior antibiotic use
    • lack of hand washing
  17. What 3 vaccines can help to prevent pneumonia? (think: H.I.P.)
    • Haemophilus influenzae B
    • Influenza
    • Pneumovax
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