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  1. SDLC
    • Syestem development life scyle
    • Planning
    • Analysis
    • Design
    • Implementation
  2. Planning
    • Understanding why a system should be build and how it benefits the business
    • Project initiation
    • Create System request
    • Conducte Feasibility analysis
    • and both are presented to approval committee
    • Once approved moves to prokect managment
  3. System Request
    • Summary of a buiness need and it explains how a system that supports the need will create business value
    • Created by project sponser
  4. Project Managments
    • Project manager makes a work plan 
    • The deliveralbe for them is the project plan which describes how the team will go about developing the system
  5. Analysis
    • Who will use the system
    • What the system will use
    • Where and When it will be used
    • First step of design of new system not just analysis
    • 3 Steps
    • 1) Analysis strategy: Analysis of the current system (as-is) and ways to desine a new to-be system
    • 2)Requirments gathering through interviews or questionairs which leads to devlep of a concpt for new system and then creates analysis models
    • 3) Systm proposal which is created from a combo of analyses, system concep, and models and presented to porject sponsor
  6. Design
    • How the system will operate in terms of hardware, sofware and netweork infrastructure
    • 4 steps:
    • 1) Design stragegy first developed by own porgrmamers, oursourced, or buy
    • 2) Architecture design describes hardware, sofware and network infra to be used where interface design says how users move throughs system
    • 3) Database and file specifications are developed
    • 4) program desgn is creaed by analysts team which says what each program does
    • System specification is combination of these documnets that is handed to programing team
  7. Implementation
    • System acutlally built
    • Gets most attention
    • 3 Steps:
    • 1) Construction to system where it is built and tested
    • 2) Installation old system is turned off and the new one is turned on. Parallel, direct or phased approach. Must provide training plan to users
    • 3) Support Plan which included formal or informa post implementation review as well as way to identify major or minor change
  8. Gradual Refinement in SCLC
    As you progress through each stage, the prvious phase refines and elaborates on the work done previously
  9. Process-centered Methodologies
    • Emphasize process models 
    • Focus first on defining processs
  10. Data-centered Methodologies
    • Emphasize data modesl as teh core of teh system concep
    • First focus on defining the contents of the storage area and how contents organized
  11. Object-oriented methodologies
    Balance between process and data
  12. Structured Design
    • Follow systematic step by step approach and moves logically from one phase to next 
    • Spend a lot of time within each phase
    • Waterfall and Parallel deelopment
  13. Waterfall
    • Proceed in sequence from one to the next
    • Pros: Identifies system requirements way in advance and minmizes changes 
    • Cons: Design completely specified before programming begins and long time elapses between completion of sytem propoal and delivery of system
  14. Parallell 
    • Does a genral design for te whole system and then divides the pojec tinto a series of distince subprojects tha can be designed and implemented in parallel
    • Then all subprojects are combined and system delivered
    • Pros: Reduce shcedule time to deliver a system so less chance of rework 
    • Cons: Still has problem of paper document and sometimes subprojects are not completely independent so may take significant integration efforts
  15. RAD
    • Rapid Application Developmnet
    • Attempt to release part of system right away to use it and suggest revisions
  16. Phased 
    • Breaks overall system into a series of
    • Most important in first version and go through all steps each time just creating new versions 
    • Pros: Quickely get into users hands
    • Cons: work with intentially incomplete so must have most important in first version
  17. Prototyping
    • Performs all phases concurently
    • First provide a quick and dirty first program with minimal things
    • Make so they can work on it as they go and make changes as they need to
    • Pros: Really quickly gets into users hands and reasures that they are working on it.
    • Cons: fast pase and fundamental issure and problem are nto recognized until well into development process
  18. Throwaway-prototyping
    • Have thourough analysis phase to gather ideas for system concept.
    • A design prototype is made for those things not understood and is not a working system and is not transformed into overall sytem. Just meant to test ideas to understand
    • used to minimize risk but can take longer
  19. Agile Developmnet
    • Meant to eliminate much of the modelign and documentation 
    • Extemg porgramming, scrum and DSDM
  20. Extreame Programming
    • Four cour values are communiatrion, simplicty, feedback, courage
    • Everything is saved and there is contiuous testint  simple coed and close interatctions with end users to build sytems quickly
  21. Key factors to Selcting a Methodology
    • Clarity of user requirments
    • Familiarity with technology
    • Sysstem complexity
    • System reliabliity
    • Short time schedules
    • Schedule visibilty
  22. Approval Committe
    • Reviews system request
    • Makes initial determination
  23. Steps for Assessing Project Feasibility
    • 1) Identify Costs and Benefits
    • 2) Assigne values to C&B
    • 3) Determine Cash flow
    • 4) Determine net present value
    • 5) Determine ROI
    • 6) Determine Breakeven point
    • 7) Graph Breakeven point
  24. What makes project Risky?
    • Lack of familuarity with functinal area
    • Lack of familiarity with technology
    • Larger projects
    • Harder to inetgreate the sysem with the cmopany's existing technology
  25. ROI
    How much money the org will recieve in return for the investment it will make
  26. Break-Even-Point
    First year in which the system has greater brenetits than costs
  27. Present Value (PV)
    • Amount of invenstment today capred to that same amount in the future
    • Amount/(1+interest rate)^n
  28. Net Present Value (NPV)
    • Present value of benefits less teh present value of cost
    • PV Ben -PV Costs
  29. Return on Investment (ROI)
    • Amount of revenues or scost savings results froma  given investmetn
    • Total ben - total cost/total cost
  30. Break-Even Point
    • Point in time at which the cost of the porject equl the valie it has deliverd
    • Yearly NPV- Cum NPV/Yearly NPV
  31. System Request
    Document that describes the business reason for building a sytem and the value that the system is expected to provide
  32. 5 Elements of System Request
    • Project Sponsor
    • Business Need
    • Business requirments
    • Business value
    • Special Issues
  33. Project Sponsor
    • Initiates project
    • Serves as primary point of contact
    • Completeds System Request
  34. Business Need
    • Business related reason for initiating the system
    • What the users will need it for
  35. Business Requirements
    • Business capabilites that the system will need to provide 
    • More technical needs of system
  36. Business Value
    Benefits created for organization
  37. Special issues
    • Relevent to teh implemnentation of the system
    • Time line
  38. Feasibility Analysis
    • Create a more detailed business case to better understand the opportunities and limitation
    • Guides org in determining whether to proceed or not
    • Identifies important risk that is associated with project
  39. 3 Techniques  
    • Technical
    • Economic
    • Organizational
  40. Technical Feasibility
    • The extent to which the system can be successfully desgined, develooped and installed 
    • Can we build it?
  41. Economic Feasibility
    • Cost benefit analysis
    • Identifies financial risk
    • Should we build it
  42. 4 Categories of Costs and benefits
    • Development costs
    • Operational costs
    • Tangible benefits
    • Intangible benefits
  43. Development costs
    • Tangible expenses from construction
    • One time expenses
    • Dev team salories
    • Consultant fees
    • Dev training
    • Vendor Installation
    • Office space and equip
  44. Operations Costs
    • Tangible costs required to operate system
    • Ongoing costs
    • Salaties op staff
    • Software license
    • Hardwae repairs and upgrades
    • Communications charges
    • User Training
  45. Tangible benefits
    • Revenues and cost savings
    • Increased sales
    • Reduction in staff
    • Reduction in Inventory
    • Reduction in IT Costs
    • Better Supplier Prices
  46. Intangible Benefits
    • Based on intuition and belief
    • Increased Market share
    • Higher Quality Products
    • Improved Customer Service
  47. Organizational Feasibility
    • How well acceped by users
    • If we build it, witll they come?
  48. Strategic Alignment
    • Fit between project and business strategy
    • Greater the alignemnt the less risky
  49. Stakeholder Analysis
    • Project champion, system users, and org mang.
    • Soeone who can or will be affected by new system
  50. Champion
    • Created the sysem request
    • Promotes project
    • Allocates time
    • Provides resources
  51. Org. Man.
    • Convey it will make a valuable contributin
    • Encuarage to accept and use
    • Budget money
  52. System Users
    • Ultimately use once develped
    • Hands on activities
  53. Outputs of each phase of SDLC
    • Planning --> System request
    • Analysis --> System proposal 
    • Design --> first models from analysis
  54. System Proposal
    • Requirment def, functional and structural, behavioral models, feaibility analysis
    • Also includes an executive summary, the system request, the work plan, the feasibility analysis, the requirements definition, and the evolving models that describe the new system.
  55. System Walkthrough
    • Meeting at which the concept for the new system is presend to the useres, managers, and key decision makers
    • Goal: explain system in moderate detail so those peple can clarly understand it, identify improvments, and make decision if it should continue
  56. Requirments
    A staement of what the system must do or what characteristics it must have
  57. Business Requirment
    • During analysis these are written
    • What of the system
    • Focus on the needs of business user
  58. System Requests
    • Later in design business evolve
    • From developers perspective
    • Describe how will be implemented
  59. Requirments Definition
    • Turn the very high level explantion of the business reqiremtns stated in the request ino a more precisce list of requiments
    • Expansions of these lead to design phase
    • Lists the nonfuncional and functional requirements in outline format
  60. Functinal Requirment
    • Related directly to a process a system has to perform or information it needs to contain
    • Define fuctions system must have without specifics
    • Ex. ability to serch for available inventory
  61. Non-functional Requirments
    • Refer to behavior properties that the system must have such as perfomrance and usability
    • ex. access system using web browser
    • Describes:
    • -operational: physical and technical environment in which the system will operate
    • -performance: Speed, capacity and reliability of the system
    • -security: Who has authorized access to the system under what circumstances
    • -cultual and political: these factors and legal requirements that affect the system
  62. Requirments gathering Techniques
    • Interviews
    • Questionnaires
    • Observation
    • JAD
    • Document Analysis
  63. Interviews
    • Most common way
    • 5 Basic Steps
  64. 5 steps for Intervies
    • 1) Selecting interviewees: make a schedule for those who are to be interviewed, when, and for what purpose
    • 2) Designing Interview Questions: There are three types of questions: closed-ended, open-ended, probing. Do not ask questions about information that is readily available from other sources
    • 3) Preparing for the interview: Have a list of questions to be asked in the appropriate order. Also make sure to inform the interviewee of the reason for the interview and the areas that will be discussed.
    • 4) Conducting Interview: First goal is to build rapport with interview then tell them reason and why they were chosen
    • 5) Post Interview Follow-up: Prepare an interview report that describes the info from interview which should contain interview notes and should be written within 48 hours of interview
  65. Close-ended Questions
    • They require a specific answer
    • Use when looking for specific precise information
  66. Open-ended Questions
    • Leave room for elaboration on the part of the interviewee
    • Use when you want to gather rich info and you want to give the interviewwee more control over the info realeased
  67. Probing Questions
    Follow up on what has just been discussed in order to learn more and are often used when interviewr is unclear about answer
  68. Structured Interviews
    • Sets of questions deveoloped prior to interviw 
    • Usually close-ended
    • Use to find out facts
  69. Unstructured interviews
    • Have open ended questionst aht allows interviewr to probe for more information
    • When things are unclear
  70. Top-down, Bottom up Interview 
    • Topdown: Starts with broad question and works towards specific. Start open ended to close ended questions
    • Bottomup: Starts specific and goes broadd. Start close ended and go to open ended
  71. JAD
    • Facilitator: Does not enter opinion. Expert in both group process techniques and system analysis and design techniques
    • Select those based on information needed
    • sticks to the agenda
    • helps the group understand the technical terms and jargon that surrounds the system development
    • records the group’s input on a public display area
  72. 5 Major steps in conduction a JAD
    • 1) Selecting Participants: Most competenet
    • 2) Designing a JAD session: half day to several weeks, depending on the scope of the project. Most last five to ten days, spread over a three-week period.
    • 3) Preparing for a JAD session: Participants must know what is expected of them, know the goal of a JAD session.
    • 4) Conducting a JAD session: formal agenda, formal ground rules that define appropriate behavior. 
    • 5) Post-JAD follow up - a postsession report is prepared and circulated among session attendees.
  73. e-JAD
    • An online JAD session
    • Can reduce time required by 50-80 percent
    • Can contribute at the same time
  74. Questionaire
    • set of writtena questions used to obtain infor form individual s
    • Good for outside the organization questions
    • 30-50 percent paper and email returned
    • Web-based is 5 -30 percent
  75. Designing Questionaire
    • Improve response by telling purpose, incentives and follow up
    • Important first
    • Ananymous
  76. Document Analysis
    • Uses As-is sytem documentation to review and examine system
    • Gives strong indication of differences from formal and informal systems and what changes need to be made
    • It is what they planned to do but not nessicsarily what they are doing
  77. Formal System
    Written documents taht were from the development of the system such as user manual, paper reoprs
  78. Informal System
    What the system is actually doing regardles of what the documentation says
  79. Observation
    Helps gather info about as-is system becasue is shows the reality of the situation as well sass check validity
  80. Factors to Gather Info
    • Type of info
    • Depth of info
    • Bredth of info
    • Integration of info
    • User invovlemnt
    • Cost
    • Compining tehcniques
Card Set
ISA Chap 2
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