1. Psychology
    Scientific study of the mind and behavior
  2. Nativism
    certain kinds of knowledge are innate or in-born
  3. Empirism
    all knowledge is acquired through experience
  4. Epigenetics
    Environmental factors can alter the way our genes are expressed, making even identical twins different
  5. Nature-Nurture Debate
    The controversy whether or not a person's behavior is more controlled by genetics or the environment
  6. Structuralism
    • analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind; breaking conciousness down into elemental sensations and feelings
    • Wundt
    • Titchener
  7. Functionalism
    • The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
    • James
    • Hall
  8. Evolutionary Psychology
    Psychological natural selection; features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations
  9. Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Approach that emphasizes the importance of uncouncioius mental processes in shaping fellings, thoughts, and behaviors
    • Freud
  10. Humanistic Psychology
    • Approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
    • Maslow
    • Rogers
  11. Behaviorism
    • scientific study of objectively observable behavior
    • Pavlov and dogs
    • Watson and baby
  12. Gestalt Psychology
    a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
  13. Cognitive Psychology
    • scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
    • Piaget
  14. Behavioral Neuroscience
    Links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
  15. Cognitive Neuroscience
    Field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
  16. Social Psychology
    The study of the caues and consequences of interpersonal behavior
  17. Cultural Psychology
    study of how cultures relfect and shape the psychological processes of their members
  18. Scientific Method
    Set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence
  19. Hypothesis
    a falsifiable prediction made by a theory
  20. Operational Definition
    Description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
  21. Validity
    Extent to which a measure and a property are conceptually related
  22. Reliability
    the tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
  23. Demand Characteristics
    Aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behavee as they think they should
  24. Double Blind
    observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed
  25. Descriptive statistics
    Describe the central tendency of a frequency distributioin and describe the variability in a frequency distribution
  26. Third Variable Problem
    Two variables are correlated only because each is casually related to a third variable
  27. Experimentation
    • Technique for establishing the casual relationship between variables
    • Manipulation
    • Random Assignment
  28. Random Assignment
    Procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group
  29. Manipulation
    the creation of an artifical pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine its casual powers
  30. Independent Variable
    Manuplated Variable
  31. Dependent Variable
    variable that is measured
  32. Experimental Group
    the group of people who are treated ina particular way
  33. Control Group
    Group of people who are not treated in a particular way
  34. Internal Validity
    • Characteristic of an experiment that establishes the casual relationship between variables
    • There is a relationship from the defined grounds of the experiment
  35. External Validity
    • Property of an experiment in which variables ahve been operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
    • Representative of the real world
  36. Population
    Complete collection of people
  37. Sample
    Partial collection of people drawn from a population
  38. Random Sampling
    Technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
  39. Generalizability
    the extent to which findings (from a study) can be generalized (or extended) to the those in natural settings (i.e., outside the lab)
  40. Informed Consent
    Written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that parcipitation may entail
  41. Debriefing
    Verbal desctiption of the true nature and purpose of a study
  42. Ramon Cajal
    • new technique of staining neurons
    • highlighted the appearance of entire cells
    • Saw many threads extending outward toward other neurons
    • Threads of neurons did not actually touch
  43. The Neuron
    Image Upload 1
  44. Three types of Neurons
    Sensory, Motor, Inter
  45. Sensory Neurons
    receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord
  46. Motor Neurons
    carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement
  47. Interneurons
    connect the sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons
  48. Electrochemical Action
    • The two-stage proces in which communication between neurons occurs
    • Conduction of an electric signal over relatively long distnaces within neurons
    • Transmission of chemical signals between neurons over the synapse
  49. Action Potential
    • Electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's action to the synapse
    • 40 millivolts
  50. Resting Potential
    the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane
  51. Neurotransmitters
    chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
  52. Dopamine
    Neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal
  53. Norephinephrine
    • Neurotransmitter that influenced mood and arouasalĀ 
    • Involved in states of vigilance or heightend awareness
  54. Serotonin
    Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and agressive behavior
  55. Endorphins
    chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotional centers of the brain
  56. Agonist
    Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
  57. Antagonist
    drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
  58. Nervous System
    Interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body
  59. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  60. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles
    • Somatic Nervous System
    • Peripheral Neverous System
  61. Somatic Nervous System
    Set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system
  62. Autnomic Nervous System
    Set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands
  63. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations
  64. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    Helps the body return to a normal state
  65. Forebrain
    • Complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Subcortical Structures
  66. Midbrain
    Small in humans: Composed of tectum and tegmentum
  67. Tectum
    • Part of midbrain
    • orients an organism in the environment
    • receives stimulus and moves organism in a coordinated way towards the stimulus
  68. Tegmentum
    • Part of the midbrain involved in movement and arousal
    • helps to orient organism towards sensory stimuli
    • location of neurotransmitters involved in arousal, mood, and motivation
  69. Hindbrain
    • Continuous with the spinal cord
    • Coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
    • basic functions of life
    • Medulla
    • Reticular Formation
    • Cerebellum
    • Pons
  70. Medulla
    hindbrain; extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
  71. Reticular formation
    Hindbrain; Regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal
  72. Cerebellum
    hindbrain; large structure of the hindbrain the controls fine motor skills
  73. Pons
    Hind Brain; structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
  74. Subcortical Structures
    Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pituatary Gland, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Basal Ganglia
  75. Pituatary Gland
    Master gland of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct functions of many other glands in the body; directed by the hypothalamus
  76. Hippocampus
    Subcortical Structure; Limbic System; creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerbral cortex
  77. Amygdala
    Subcortical structure; limbic system; tip of each horn of the hippocampus and plays role in formation of emotional memories
  78. Cerebral Cortex
    • Highest level of the brain, most complex aspects of perception, emotion, movement, and thought
    • Raised part- Gyrus
    • Indentations-Sulcus
  79. Corpus Callosum
    Connects large areas of the cerbral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres
  80. Left Hemisphere
    Language Processing
Card Set
Exam 1