1. Color spectrum of blood?
    Varies from bright scarlet (oxygenated) to a dull brick red (deoxygenated)
  2. Average volume of blood in adult body?
    • 5-6 L males
    • 4-5 L females
  3. Type of tissue blood is classified?
    Connective tissue because it consists of nonliving fluid matrix (plasma) in which living cells (formed elements) are suspended.

    Fibers of matrix become visible during blood clotting, they appear as fibrin threads, which form structural basis for clot formation.
  4. Substances dissolved/suspended in plasma?
    • Nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins)
    • Resp Gases (O2 and CO2)
    • Hormones
    • Proteins
    • Electrolytes (salts)
    • Wastes (urea, uric acid)
    • Metabolites
  5. Three types of formed elements in blood?
    • Erythrocytes (RBCs)
    • Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Platelets
  6. Erythrocytes
    Sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transport bulk of oxygen carried in blood and small percentage of carbon dioxide.
  7. Leukocytes
    Part of body's nonspecific defenses and immune system.
  8. Platelets
    Function in hemostasis (blood clot formation).
  9. Percentage of formed elements in blood.
    • 55% Plasma
    • 45% Whole Blood
  10. Composition of Plasma
    • 90% Water: Solvent for carrying other substances; Absorbs heat
    • Salts (Electrolytes): Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Biocarbonate
    • Plasma Proteins: Albumin (osmotic balance, pH buffering), Fibrinogen (clotting of blood), Globulins (defense (antibodies) and lipid transport)
  11. Composition of Whole Blood
    • Formed Elements:
    • Erythrocytes (RBCs): 4-6 mil, trans O2 and CO2
    • Leukocytes (WBCs): 4,800-10,800, defense and immunity
    • Platelets: 150,000 - 400,000, blood clotting
  12. Number of RBCs in average cubic millimeter of blood?
    4-6 million
  13. Number of WBCs in average cubic millimeter of blood?
    4,800 - 10,800
  14. Number of Platelets in average cubic millimeter of blood?
    150,000 - 400,000
  15. Functions of Erythrocytes (RBCs)?
    To transport O2 and CO2.
  16. Functions of Leukocytes (WBCs)?
    • Defense and Immunity.
    • Protective, pathogen-destroying cells that are transported to all parts of the body in blood or lymph
    • Diapedesis: ability to move in/out of blood vessels
    • Amoeboid Motion: ability to wander through body tissues to reach sites of inflammatio or tissue destruction
  17. Function of Platelets?
    Blood clotting.
  18. Five types of Leukocytes (WBCs)?
    • Neutrophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  19. Specs of Erythrocytes (RBCs)?
    • 7.5 um in diameter
    • Vary in color from salmon red to pale pink
    • Have distinctive biconcave disk shape and appear paler i center "donut shaped"
    • Anucleate when mature: unable to reproduce or repair damage
    • Life span is 100-120 days, begin to defragment and are destroyed in spleen/other reticuloendothelial tissues.
  20. Specs of Leukocytes (WBCs)?
    • Nucleated
    • Formed in bone marrow from same stem cells (hemocytoblasts) as red blood cells
  21. Two major groups of leukocytes?
    • Depend on whether or not they contain conspicuous granules in their cytoplasm.
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes/Agranular Leukocytes
  22. Granulocytes
    Granules in their cytoplasm, lobed nuclei, which often consist of expanded nuclear regions connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm.
  23. Agranulocytes/Agranular Leukocytes
    Contains no visible cytoplasmic granules.
  24. Specs of Neutrophil
    • Most abundant of WBCs (40-70%)
    • Nucleus consists of 3-7 lobes and pale iliac cytoplasm containns fie cystoplasmic granules
    • Take up both red and blue dys
    • Functio as active phagocyte
    • Increases during acute infection
  25. Specs of Eosinophil
    • 2-4% of leukocyte population
    • Nucleus generally figure-8 or bilobed in shape
    • Contains large cytoplasmic granules (elaborate lysosomes) stained red-orange with acid dye
    • Play a role in counterattacking parasitic worms, lessen allergy attacks by phagocytizing antigen-antibody complexes and inactivating some inflammatory chemicals.
    • About the size of nuetrophils
  26. Specs of Basophil
    • Least aundant leukocyte, less than 1% of population
    • Large U- or S-shaped nucleus with two or more indentations
    • Cytoplasm contains coarse, sparse graules that are staied deep purple by basic dyes
    • Granules contain several chemicals, including histamine, a vasodilator which is discharged on exposure to antigens and helps mediate the innflammatory response. 
    • About same size of neutrophils
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