1. Hasty Generalization
    • 1.    Making
    • assumptions about a whole group or range of cases

    • Based
    • on a sample that is inadequate or with little evidence (usually because it is
    • atypical or too small).
  2.  Oversimplification 
    • Offering a
    • solution or an explanation that is too simple for the problem or issue being
    • argued. This fault overlooks the complexity of an issue.
  3. Stereotyping 
    • A
    • form of generalization or oversimplification in which an entire group is
    • narrowly labeled or perceived on the basis of a few in the group.

  4. False analogy 
    • – falsely claiming that, because something resembles
    • something else in one way, it resembles is in all ways.
  5.  Non sequitur 
    • Drawing inferences or conclusions that do not follow
    • logically from available evidence.
  6. Ad hominem 
    • – Attacking the character of the arguer rather than
    • the argument itself. 
  7. Begging the Question
    • A
    • complicated fallacy, an argument that begs the question asks the reader to
    • simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence.
  8. Red Herring 
    • Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a
    • tangent,  raising a side issue that
    • distracts the audience from what's really at stake. Often, the arguer never
    • returns to the original issue.
  9. Post Hoc (false cause)
    Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B.
  10. Missing the Point 
    • - The premises of an argument do support a particular
    • conclusion – but                  not
    • the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
  11. Slippery Slope 
    • - The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction,
    • usually ending in some dire consequence,
    • will take place, but there's really not enough evidence for that assumption
  12. . Weak Analogy 
    • Many arguments rely on an analogy between two or more
    • objects ideas, or situations. If the two things that are being compared aren't really
    • alike in the relevant respects, the analogy is a weak one
  13. Appeal to Authority 
    • Often, we
    • add strength to our arguments by referring to respected sources or authorities
    • & explaining their positions on issues we're discussing
  14. Appeal to Pity 
    • It takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept
    • a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
  15. Appeal to Ignorance 
    • In this one, the arguer basically says, "Look,
    • there's no conclusive evidence on the issue at hand. Therefore, you should
    • accept my conclusion on this issue."
  16. . Straw Man 
    • One way of making our own arguments stronger is to
    • anticipate and respond in advance to the arguments that an opponent might
    • make.  The arguer sets up a wimpy version
    • of the opponent’s position and tries to score point by knocking it down. 
  17. False Dichotomy 
    • – In this one, the arguer sets up situation so it
    • looks like there are only two choices. The arguer then eliminates one of the
    • choices, so it seems that we are left with only one option: the one the arguer
    • wanted us to pick in the first place.
  18. . Equivocation 
    • Sliding between two or more different meanings of a
    • single word or phrase that is important to the argument.
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