fire-Lecture 7 part 1

  1. Thermal injuries occur when the body's:
    Thermal injuries occur when the body's cooling mechanism fails to compensate for externally applied heat
  2. The damage from thermal injuries depends on what three factors?
    • Applied temperature
    • Ability of the body surface to conduct away excess heat
    • time for which heat is applied
  3. Flame burns are when skin is:
    in direct contact with the flame
  4. Contact burns are when skin:
    • are in direct contact with a hot object
    • -They may have the shape of that object
  5. Radiant burns are when skin:
    is exposed to heat wavves without any contact with the source
  6. First degree burns
    • damage is limited to epidermis
    • only redness; no blisters
  7. 2nd degree burns
    • Damage to both the epidermis and the upper dermis
    • Blisters are common
  8. 3rd degree burns
    • Effects the whole thickness of skin
    • painless
  9. 4th degree burns
    Charring of the skin and the underlying soft tissues
  10. Deaths due to burns:
    • Hypovolemic shock
    • infection
    • problems of immoblilizaton
    • -pneumonia
    • -thromboemboli
  11. thromboembolism:
    Formation in a blood vessel of a clot (thrombus)

    that breaks loose and is carried by the blood stream to plug another

    vessel. The clot may plug a vessel in the lungs


    embolism), brain (stroke),

    gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, or leg.
  12. Hypovolemic shock
    too much fluid loss through damaged skin
  13. Deaths due to fires:
    Thermal injry: same as in burns, airway injury from inhalation of superheated atmosphere

    • Inhalation injury:
    • carbon monoxide
    • Lack of oxygen
    • toxic fumes
  14. Manners of death in fire
    • Accidents: most common
    • Natural: death due to natural disease followed by fire from a hazard at the scene
    • Suicide: self-immolation usally with accelerants
    • save any clothing in air-tight cans for analysis
    • Homicide: arson, may be concealed as "accidental" fire deaths
  15. During fire scence investion _____ and ____ the first started can help the pathologist determin the manner of death
    How and where
  16. What to look for in an autopsy of a fire related death:
    • Burns of skin
    • Soot in nose, mouth and airways
    • soot in gastric contents
    • toxicology
    • cherry pink color of skin and internal organs due to formation of carboxyhemoglobin
  17. Pugilistic attitude
    • boxers stance
    • due to heat-induced dehydration and contraction of skeletal muscles
    • *flexor muscles are more powerful than extensors*
  18. Skin splitting
    • possible extrusion of organs
    • superheated skin contracts and splits open
    • can be mistaken for sharp force trauma
  19. Extreme heat induced _______may cause skeletal fractures.
    Most common in____ and ___
    Muscle contraction

    ankles and wrists
  20. Heat induced epidural hematomoa
    pressure build up of heated brain within the skull forces blood out
  21. Heat induced epidural hematoma is more common if:
    outside of skull is charred
  22. Most fire deaths are due to:
    Inhalation injury= carbon monoxide (asphyxia)
  23. Hemoglobin's binding affinity to carbon monoxide is ___x that for oxygen
  24. T/F The absence of carbon monoxide does not mean that the victim did not die of inhaling the toxic atmosphere in a fire
  25. ______ deplete oxygen and produce little carbon monoxide. These are associated with ____
    • Rapid flash fires
    • associated with volatiles and enclosed space fires
  26. Combustion of modern plastic polymers
    • cyanide
    • nitric oxide
    • phosgene
  27. The most common type of scalds are:
    immersion scalds
  28. Children require ____ the time to result in a full thickness burn than adults
  29. What can you expect to see with immersion scalds?
    • clear cut immersion line
    • uniform depth and severity of immersion scald burns
    • common areas of sparing: Groin, behind knees, palms, (clingches fist) between toes, buttocks if pressed against bottom of tub
  30. ______ will present the most severe burn with spill scalds.
    Site of impact
  31. Pattern of spill scalds
    • Irregular
    • liquid flows with gravity as it cools
    • scald depth is non-uniform
    • clothing may change the pattern
Card Set
fire-Lecture 7 part 1
Pathology: Lecture 7