Sociology 101 Test 1

  1. What is conflict analysis?
    Theoretical approach that assumes social systems are in a state of tension, with unrest as the basic condition, as a result of the unequal distribution of scarce resources
  2. Define correlation
    A relationship between two variables
  3. Dependent Variable
    A variable influenced systematically by changes in the independent variable
  4. Dramaturgy
    A social construction model that treats social interaction as a series of mini-dramas.
  5. Ethnomethodology
    A technique for looking under the taken-for-granted surface of daily life by turning it upside down to reveal an unspoken reality
  6. Evolutionary Psychology
    Thereotical approach that explains human behavior in evolutionary and biological terms
  7. Field Experiments
    Experiments that take place outside the lab but where some aspect of the environment can be manipulated to influence the responses of unaware (naïve) subjects.
  8. Feminist Sociology
    Theoretical approach that directs attention to women's experience and to the importance of gender as an element of social structure.
  9. Functional Anaylysis
    Theoretical approach that views collectivities including entire societies as structured in such a way that, over time, the various parts come to reinforce one another.
  10. Humanist Sociology
    Theoretical approach based on the belief that a value-free sociology is not possible and that attempts as employing one only reinforce existing inequalities and injustice.
  11. Hypothesis
    A testable guess, derived from theory, about relationships among variables.
  12. Independent Variable
    In research studies, the independent variable has the greatest impact, comes first in the chain of events, is relatively fixed, and/or affects dependent variables.
  13. Longitudinal Framework
    A research method in which the same people or variables are followed over several years.
  14. Macro-Level
    This form of analysis focuses on the broad outline or larger picture of society and social institutions.
  15. Mean
    A statistic whereby the average is derived by dividing the total number of units.
  16. Measures of Central Tendency
    Single numbers that summarize an entire set of data
  17. Median
    The midpoint in a distribution; it is a statistic that deals with the problem of extremes.
  18. Micro-Level
    This form of analysis focuses on the smaller aspects of society and social interactions, looking intensely at a limited set of objects.
  19. Mode
    A statistic that pinpoints the single most common or frequent item in an array of data.
  20. Paradigm
    A conceptual model of how the world works.
  21. Participant Observation
    A research method in which the researcher becomes part of the interaction under study.
  22. Percentage
    A statistic that shows how many of a given item there are in every 100 cases.
  23. Post-modernism
    Theoretical approach that views all claims to "the truth" as suspect because they are based on the meanings given to words in one society at a given historical moment.
  24. Primary Material
    New information gathered specifically for a particular research project.
  25. Qualititative Research
    Research method that relies primarily on interpretive description rather than statistics. Examples: interviews, ethnography, participant observation
  26. Quantitative Research
    Research method that uses the features of scientific objectivity, including complex statistical techniques. Examples include: surveys, experiments
  27. Random Sampling
    Research technique for selecting a manageable number of cases that, within statistical limits, can be said to stand for an entire category.
  28. Rate
    A measure of how many times a given item appears in a population; the base is usually greater than 100, such as 1,000 or 100,000. (Rate is numerator, base is demoninator - usually large like 250 out of 100,000)
  29. Rational Choice Theory
    Theoretical approach based on a narrow economic view of behavior in which people and organizations tend to do that which brings the most benefit at the least cost. 
  30. Ratio
    A statistic that permits comparison of one subpopulation with another, such as the ratio of men to women.
  31. Scientific Method
    A set of procedures, developed in the natural sciences, consisting of objective observations, precise measurement, and full disclosure of results. 

    Steps: Definining the problem, reviewing the literature, formulating the hypothesis, selecting the research design then collecting and analyzing data, developing the conclusion
  32. Secondary Analysis
    Research done by reworking existing data, such as those found in government publications, historical records, and diaries and letters
  33. Symbolic Interaction
    A social construction model that focuses on communication through shared understandings and on humans' constant interaction with others. 
  34. Anomie
    A feeling of bewilderment when normative guidance is lacking or ambiguous
  35. Artifacts
    Material items such as pottery, tents, or spears.
  36. Bureaucracy
    A formal organization characterized by rationality and efficiency, so that large-scale tasks can be accomplished.
  37. Cultural Relativism
    The ability to appreciate the content of other cultures without making value judgements.
  38. Cultural Variability
    The variety of customs, beliefs, and artifcats devised by humans to meet universal needs.
  39. Culture
    The ways of thinking, believing and acting that are shared by members of a society.
  40. Dyad
    A two-person group.
  41. Ethnocentrism
    The belief that one's own culture is the best and therefore the standard by which other cultures are judged.
  42. Formal Organization
    A social structure characterized by impersonality, ranked positions, large size, relative complexity, and long duration.
  43. Group
    Characterized by a distinctive set of relationships, interdependence, and a sense of membership
  44. Hierarchy
    A set of ranked statuses from least to most powerful.
  45. Heterogeneous Socieities
    Made up of sizable numbers of citizens who worship different gods and are of varying skin colors and national origins.
  46. Homogeneous Societies
    Made up of people who are similar in terms of race, religion, and ethnic background.
  47. Instrumental Relationships
    Relationships that are maintained as a means to another goal.
  48. Kinesics
    The study of nonverbal communication
  49. Laws
    Norms that govern behavior considered essential to group survival
  50. Macro-Level Sociology
    Focuses on society as a whole or on social systems at a high level of abstraction
  51. Materialism
    The need to prove one's worth through accumulating objects of value.
  52. Meso-Level Sociology
    Focuses on intermediate-level analysis, such as oganizational activity.
  53. Micro-Level Sociology
    Focuses on smaller units of social systems, such as face-to-face interactions
  54. Mores
    Norms governing matters of moral and ethical importance, such as courtship conduct or showing respect to ancestors
  55. Norms
    Rules that regulate behavior and ensure social order
  56. Primary Groups
    Close-knit, intimate groups of individuals
  57. Role
    Behavior attached to each status
  58. Sanctions
    Reactions that convey approval or disapproval
  59. Secondary Groups
    Groupings that are more formal and impersonal than primary groups
  60. Social Network
    The sum total of an individual's group membership
  61. Social Structure
    A collective reality that exists apart from indivduals and forms the context in which people interact
  62. Subculture
    Consists of variations of values, beliefs, norms, and behavior amount social subgroups
  63. Symbol
    Signifies nothing in and of itself but which is given meaning by the agreement of group members.
  64. Triad
    A three-person group
  65. Universals
    Elements of culture found in every society from the small gathering bands of the Amazon rain forest to the United States
  66. Values
    Refers to the central belief of a culture that provides standards against which norms can be judged.
  67. Sociology
    the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
  68. Auguste Compte
    • Responsible for coining term "sociology"
    • Focused on two aspects of society:
    • - social statics - forces which produce order and stability
    • - social dynamics - forces which contribute to social change
  69. Harriet Martineau
    • Authored one of the earliest analyses of culture and life in the US
    • Translated Compte's Positive Philosophy into English
  70. Karl Marx
    • father of conflict theory
    • saw human history in constant battle between two major classes
    • - Bourgeoisie - owners of the means of production (capitalists)
    • - Proletariat - the workers
  71. Emile Durkheim
    • moved sociology fully into the realm of an empiracal science
    • most well known empirical study called Suicide, where he looked at the social causes of suicide
    • generally regarded as founder of Functionalist Theory
  72. Max Weber
    • Most famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism directly challenged Marx's ideas on the role of religion in society. 
    • Much of his work was a critique or clarification of Marx
    • Interested in bureaucrocies and the process of rationaliszation in society
  73. Functionalism
    • - Sees society as a system of highly interrelated parts that work together harmoniously
    • -  The image used to understand society is a "living organism"
    • - Each part of society works together for the benefit of the whole, much like a living organism
  74. Conflict Theory
    • - Grounded in the work of Karl Marx
    • - Society is understood to be made up of conflicting interest groups who vie for power and priviledge
    • - This dynamic results in continuous social change, which is the normal state of affairs.
    • - Focuses heavily on inequality and differential distribution of power and wealth
  75. Interactionalist Theory
    • - Focuses on how individuals make sense of and interpret the world
    • - Tends to focus on the "micro-order" of small groups
    • -Has given rise to several specific approaches:
    •     -Symbolic interactivism by George Herbert Mead
    •     - Ethnomethodology by Harld Garfinkel
    •     - Dramaturgy by Erving Goffman
  76. Feminist Perspective
    • - Focuses on inequality in gender as being a major sociological issue
    • - Ida Wells-Barnett was one of the leading thinkers of this perspective
    • - Associated with conflict theory
    • - Advocated for equliity in research  to include women and also to include men in women's issues with women
  77. What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative studies?
    quantitive - uses datat that can easily be converted into numbers (surveys, experiments)

    qualitative - involves data that can't easily be converted to numbers (words, observations, interviews)
  78. What problems arise when applying scientific method to human behavior?
    • Difficult to measure human behavior
    • Difficult to not disturb population you are studying
    • Many confounding factors (too many independent variables)
    • Value neutrality
  79. Define hypothesis. How is it related to variables?
    A hypothesis is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
  80. What are the four major research types of research methods used by sociologists?
    • - surveys (ex: Census)
    • - observational studies (ex: participant observation/ethnography)
    • - experiments - artificially created situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables
    • - secondary analysis (ex: examining Census data)
  81. Explain the evolutionary basis of culture.
    • Hunter/gatherer -> Pastoral -> Horticultural -> Agricultural 
    • -> Feudal -> Industrial -> Post-Industrial
  82. Identify the elements of culture.
    Culture is the entire way of life for a group of people

    • material culture - includes the objects associated with a cultural group
    • symbolic culture - includes ways of thinking (beliefs, values and assumptions)
    •      -Signs, gestures, language
  83. Why are symbols key to the development of culture?
    Language is a system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures and written symbols. And some argue that it shapes not just our communication but perception of how we see things as well. It's a key part of language development and language development is crucial to the development of culture.
  84. Explain how survival needs are related to cultural universals
    cultural universals - certain common practices and beliefs in a culture

    many of these universals are adaptations to meet essential human needs (food, shelter, clothing)
Card Set
Sociology 101 Test 1
Sociology 101 Schaefer Chapters 1-3