What is a post synaptic potential? What are examples of excitatory and inhibitory?
- They are fast acting
- Excite - Glutamate
- Inhibitory - GABA
What is neuromodulation?
- Slower acting
- regulation of synaptic transmission
- Facilitate or inhibit signaling properties of neurons
Where is ACH found?
NMJ, PNS, preganglionic fibers, postganglionic parasympathetic fibers
What is the function of ACH in the CNS and PNS?
- CNS: Modulator
- PNS: Effector
What are teh nuclei that uses ACH? And what do they do?
- Nucleus Basalis - projections to most cortical areas
- Medial septal nucleas - projections to hippocampus
- Pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei/ Laterodorsal tegmental nuclei - role in arousal and locomotor regions
What are the main functions of ACH in CNS? **
Attention, memory and learning
What are adverse effects of drugs that block ACH?
Could cause Memory issues
What disease and defect could degeneration of ACH connections cause?
could be related to memory eficits seen in Alzheimer disease.
Where does Dopamine synthesize?
in the substantia nigera, pars compacta, and ventral tegmental area of the midbrain
What is the mesostriatal (nigrostriatal) pathway of dopamine synthesis?
From the substantia nigra to the striatum which is composed of the putamen and caudate
Where the mesolimbic pathway of dopamine travel?
TO the limbic system
Where is the pathway from the mesocortical tract for dopamine?
To the prefrontal gyrus
What happens with a lesion to the nigrostriatal pathway? Tx?
- Could cause parkinson's disease
- treated with DA agonists (pre-dopamine)
What could happen with imbalances of dopamine in the limbic system? What pathway? Tx?
- Mesolimbic pathway.
- Cause schizophrenia signs, such as hallucinations
- treated with DA antagonists (DA is hyperactive already)
What do the dopamine mesocrotical fibers regulate? Disease?
memory and attention; project to prefronal cortex (for initiation of movement; hypokinesia in PD
Where is norepinephrine synthesized?
- Locus Ceruleus
- lateral tegmental area
What is the target for norepinephrine?
Forebrain and branstem nuclei
Is norepinephrine excitatory of inhibitory?
Inhibitory or excitatory: thalamic connections are mostly excitatory connections
What is the function of Norepinephron
- inhibits sleep
- enhances wakefullness
- cycle regulation
- sympathetic regulation of BP
How is ADD treated?
treated with agents that facilitate noradrenergic connections
How is narcolepsy treated?
often treated with noradrenergic agonists
What neurotransmitter(s) play a role in mood disorder?
- Norepinephrie and serotonin
- (Depression, Manic Depression Disorder, OCD)
Where is serotonin synthesized?
in the Raphe nucleus
Where does the rostral raphe nuclei send projections?
To the forebrain, thalamus, and basal ganglia
What is the function of rostral raphe nuclei
- Serotonin connections can be either excitatory/ inhibitory
- involved in depression, OCD, aggression, sexual behavior, sleep/wake cycles
Where does the caudal raphe nucle have projections? Functions?
- To cerebellum, medulla, SC
- Mediate pain
Where is histamine located?
- posterior hypothalamus (tuberomamillary nucleus)
- reticular formation
- Mast cells
What is the point of histamine in mast cells?
plays a role in allergic and inflammatory reactions
What is the role of histamine in the CNS
plays an excitatory/inhibitory role to facilitate alertness
What do do antihistamine drugs do?
- treat allergies
- cuase CNS depression (drowsiness)
What are the characteristics of ionotropic NT and receptors? (ligand-gated receptors)
- Multimeric proteins
- form a pore on the cell membrane
- combine transmitter-binding and channel into 1 unit
What are the characteristics of metabotropic NT and receptors? (G-protein-coupled receptors)
- opening or closing of ion channels depends on G-protein intermediates
- Phosphorylating ion channels by protein kinases to open them