GI 2nd half-A.txt

  1. What is hiatal hernia?
    An anatomical abnormaility where part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphram into the chest
  2. What are causes of Hiatal herina
    • congenital Defect
    • increased intraabdominal pressure associated with obesity
  3. What are symptoms of Hiatal hernia
    Present in only a minority affected
  4. Hiatal Hernia - Diagnosis
    • chest x-ray
    • Barium swallow radiograph
    • Endoscopy
  5. Hiatial Hernia - Treatment
    • lifestyle changes
    • medications
    • surgery
  6. What are dieases of the stomach
    • Gastritis
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Gastroenteritis and food poisioning
    • cancer of the stomach
  7. Gastritis
    an inflamation, irritation and swelling of the lining of the stomach
  8. 2 types of gastritis
    • Acute gastritis - short lasting
    • Chronic Atrophic gastritis - last for months to years
  9. Causes of Acute Gastritis
    • Alchohol
    • tobacco/smoking
    • Helicobacter pylori infection
    • NSAIDs
  10. Symptoms of Acute Gastritis
    • Dark stools
    • vomity blood or coffee-ground like material
  11. What test can you run for acute gastritis
  12. What is chronic atrophic gastritis
    Dergenaerative condition affecting the stomach lining interfering with gastric intrinis factor and HCL secretion
  13. Causes of chronic atrophic gastritis
    • stomach cancer
    • chronic alcholism
    • chronic exposure to irritants such as alchohol, aspirin or certain food
  14. Symptoms and tests for chronic atrophic gastritis
    • similar to acture gastritis
    • Dark stools
    • vomity blood or coffee-ground like material
    • Esophageogastroduodenoscopy
  15. Treatment for chronic atrophic gastritis
    little can be done
  16. Peptic Ulcers
    an erosion in the mucous membrane that produces a crate-like lesion can occuranywhere in the digestive tract
  17. What are 2 types of peptic ulcers
    • Gastric ulcer = found in the lowe half of the stomach
    • duodenal ulcer - found in the uper part of th esmall intestine directly below the stomach
  18. Causes of peptic ulcers
    • helicobacter pylori infection
    • NSAIDs
    • Tobacco/smoking
    • alcohol
  19. What are symptoms of peoptic ulcers
    • Bloody (dark, tarry) stools (melana)
    • Bloody vomitus (hematemesis)
  20. Possible complications Peptic ulcers
    • Perforation of gastric or intestinal wall
    • internal bleeding
    • gastric outlet obstruction
    • blookd in stoool or in vomiting
    • peritonitis
  21. Diagnosis of Peptic ulcers
    • Esophgeogastroduodenenoscopy
    • Detection of blood in the stool
    • Blood tests for elevated wbcsw
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GI 2nd half-A.txt
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