Brainstem Physiology

  1. What is the function and location of the pneumotaxic center?
    • Inhibits respiration (antagonist to apneustic center)
    • Pons
  2. What is the function and location of the apneustic center?
    • Promotes inspiration (antagonist to pneumotaxic center)
    • Pons
  3. Where does regulation controlling the respiratory rhythm happen? Can it happen elsewhere?
    • Medulla primarily
    • Forebrain can take over breathing rhythm w/ thinking
  4. What are the inputs to the respiratory circuits?
    • Chemoreceptros to Nucleus Solitarius in Medulla.
    • Lung stretch receptors (recoiling)
  5. What is the respiratory pacemaker?
    Mediated by the pre-Botzinger complex in medula
  6. What is the specific nuclei output for inspiration and expiration
    • LMN in C3-C5 to excit phrenic nerve efferent fibers to DIAPHRAGM
    • LMN at thoracic levels to control inspiration/expiratory mm
  7. What is Cheyne-stoke respiration?
    Deeper breaths then shallow breathes alternating
  8. Where is the cardiorespiratory center located?
    Nucleus Solitarius in medulla
  9. What is the input into the cardiorespiratoy center?
    Chemo and baroreceptors from CN IX and X
  10. Where is the Output from the nucleus solitarius go and do?
    Spinal cord - intermediolateral column (sympathetic) -> Maintaining normal BP

    Limbic system - emotional response (altered: panic attacks, physiological response)
  11. What happens with a pontine leasion?
    abnormal shivering patterns
  12. What happens to a medullary lesion
    abnormal frequency of hiccups
  13. What does nausea and vomiting occur with brainstem?
    • chemotactic trigger zone (medulla (4th ventricle)
    • Serotonin stimulates afferents from Vagus, which reaches nucleus solitarus
  14. What are some miscellaneousfucniton of the brainstem?
    laughing, crying, coughing, sneezing, yawning, gaggin, comiting, swallowing.
  15. Where does ducessation happen for the superior cebellar peduncle?
    At the Midbrain
  16. Where does the superior cebellar peduncle reach? What are the main outputs (general)?
    • Red nucleus
    • mainly cerebellar outputs.
  17. Where does the middle cerebellar peduncle receive input from?
    The pontine nucleus that receives input from the corticopontine fibers
  18. Where does the inferior cebellar peducle send its input
    to the cerebellum from the spinal cord.
  19. What is the location of the reticular formation? [semi-tricky Q]
    • all throughout the length of the brainstem
    • central core of nuclei
    • organization is diffuse; no distintive boundaries
  20. What are the divisions of the reticular formation? and where are they?
    • Rostral Reticular formation - midbrain and upper Pons (pontomesencephalic)
    • Caudal reticular formation (lower pons and medulla)
  21. What is the function of the Rostral reticular formation?
    Act with nuclei in diencephalon to keep alert conscious state
  22. What is the function of the Caudal Reticular Formation?
    Act with CN nuclei and spinal cord to regulate reflexive, autonomic and motoric functions.
Card Set
Brainstem Physiology
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