PBD Exam 1

  1. This G protein activates AC to decrease cAMP
  2. This G protein inhibits AC to decrease cAMP 
  3. These inactivate cAMP
  4. High levels of cAMP activate _____
  5. This activate PLC 
  6. PLC makes __(1)____ and __(2)___
    IP3 and DAG
  7. IP3 releases ___ from storage.  This acitvates ___
    Ca2+      ,   ca depentent PKA
  8. Inhibits calcium channels
  9. Activates potassium channels
  10. Activates calcium channels
  11. ACh agonists (2)
    Nicotine, muscarine
  12. Antagonists of nAChRs
    Curare, hexamethonium, DBE, alpha bungarotoxin
  13. Antagonists of mAChRs (2)
    Scopolamine, atropine
  14. What terminates the release of ACh?
  15. What moves ACh from cytoplasm to vesicle?
  16. how is ACh synthesized?
    Choline (extracellular) + Acetyla CoA (mitochondria)
  17. The peak voltage observed during an action potential is determined in large part by the equilibrium potential for sodium. (T/F)
  18. Constitutively open ion channels contribute to the active membrane properties of a cell . T/f?
  19. Enzyme linked receptors have ___ transmembrane spanning regions
  20. When photosensitive cells in the retina (specifically rods) are exposed to bright light, activation of a G protein called Gt ultimately leads to a reduction of cGMP levels in the cytosol.  True//false?
  21. Which is the auto receptor subtype for NE neurons?
    Alpha 2
  22. PKA can be activated by: (4 choices)
    1. DAG 2. cGMP  3. Calcium   4. membrane bound kinases
  23. Synonym for parasympathetic system
  24. The superior mesenteric ganglion contains postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
  25. Mode of action for thalidomide
     decrease in a cytokine called TNF alpha
  26. Ca is sequestered in the Rough ER
  27. Which signaling is this? 
    Signaling molecules are released into the extracellular space, but are rapidly taken up by other cells or destroyed by enzymes. Effect on cells in the local vicinity of the signaling cell
  28. Which signaling molecule? 

    allows very specific and very rapid delivery of highly concentrated signaling molecules at large distances from the cell soma
  29. Which signaling molecule? 

    allows relatively slow and non-specific delivery at low concentrations via the bloodstream
  30. This binds to nACHr at NMJ and can induce paralysis
  31. These increase the sensity of GABA receptors (2)
    barbiturates, tranquilizers
  32. Target tissue and effect of vasopression
    Liver, breakdown glycogen
  33. ACh has two targets and effects
    • 1-Pancrease, amylase
    • 2-Smooth muscle, contraction
  34. Target, effect of thrombin
    Blood platelets, aggregation
  35. What subunit of which receptor activates mAChR to open K channels in heart?
    Beta Y of Gi
  36. Which effectors have small non polar molecules in the mebrane?
  37. Location and mechanism of Alpha 1 receptors
    Smooth muscles & glands, activate PLC
  38. Location and mechanism of alpha 2
    Inhibits AC, feedback inhibtion of NE (autoreceptor)
  39. Alpha 2 are found 3 other places
    Platelet (aggregation), Pancreas (inhibit insulin), smooth muscle (vasoconstriction)
  40. Beta 1. Location? Mechanism?
    Heart. Activate AC and increase cAMP
  41. Beta 2. Location, mechanism?
    Smooth muscle, glands. Activate AC and increase cAMP
  42. These two enzymes degrade NE:
    1: MAO   2. COMT
  43. These fibers relase ACh onto the adrenal medulla
    Sympathetic, preganglionic
  44. These cells respond to ACh in the adrenal medulla AND then relase E/ NE in this ration
    Chromaffin cells. 4:1
  45. The adrenal medulla is considered a modified _____
    prevertebral sympathetic ganglion
  46. What is the affinity of these agonists for the receptor Alpha 1?   NE, isoprenaline, epinephrine
    NE > epinephrine >> isoprenaline
  47. What is the affinity of these agonists for the receptor Alpha 2? NE, epinephrine, isopenaline
    NE > epinephrine >> isoprenaline
  48. What is the affinity of these agonists for the receptor Alpha 1?   NE, isoprenaline, epinephrine
    Iso>> Epi>> NE
  49. What is the affinity of these agonists for the receptor Beta 1?   NE, isoprenaline, epinephrine
    Iso> NE= Epinephrine
  50. Name 4 neuropeptides that have significant roles in ANS function
    • substance P, cholecystokinin, somatostatin,
    • and neurotensin.
  51. This sytem produces simple refelx arcs
    Somatic nervous system
  52. Most ANS functions are ultimatley regulated by the ______
  53. Cardiovascular reflexes are regulated in the _____
    brain stem
  54. Complicated reflex arcs for breathing, sneezing, etc, are located in the ______
    pons, medulla
  55. Neuron of the ________ are essentially postganglionic parasympathetic neurons.
    enteric plexus
Card Set
PBD Exam 1
Terms and Questions for Exam 1