Art and world

  1. Image Upload 1
    • Willendorf, Austria
    • ca. 28,000–25,000 BCE
    • Limestone
    • approx. 4 1/4” high
    • The anatomical exaggerations in this tiny figurine from Willendorf are typical of Paleolithic representations of women, whose child-bearing capabilities ensured the survival of the species.
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    • Spotted horses and negative hand imprints, wall painting in the cave at Pech-Merle, Lot, France,  
    • ca. 22,000 BCE
    • wall painting, w/ dried pigment blown through tubes
    • Approx. 11’ 2” long
    • The purpose and meaning of Paleolithic art are unknown. Some researchers think the painted hands near the Pech-Merle horses are "signatures" of community members or of individual painters.  Horse may be from vision in transcendent state
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    • Hammurabi and Shamash, detail of the stele of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, ca. 1780 BCE.
    • Diorite, with cuneiform describing all of the laws
    • Text combined w/ image makes it more powerful
    • The relationship between king and god in the ancient Near East is set out on this Babylonian stele representing the sun god extending to Hammurabi the symbols of his authority to govern and enact laws.
    • The stele that records Hammurabi's remarkably early law code also is one of the first examples of an artist employing foreshortening—the representation of a figure or object at an angle.
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    • White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq
    • ca. 3200–3000 BCE
    • Made of mud brick b/c stone was rare in Sumer
    • Ziggurat is 40 ft high to be closer to the gods, dominated the landscape, only a select few allowed in actual temple
    • Using only mud bricks, the Sumerians erected temple platforms called ziggurats several centuries before the Egyptians built stone pyramids. The most famous ziggurat was the biblThe White Temple at Uruk was probably dedicated to Anu, the sky god. It has a central hall (cella) with a stepped altar where the Sumerian priests would await the apparition of the deity.ical Tower of Babel.
  5. Image Upload 5
    • Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq
    • ca. 3200–3000 BCE
    • Marble
    • approx. 8” high
    • The Sumerians imported the marble for this head at great cost. It may represent the goddess Inanna and originally had inlaid colored shell or stone eyes and brows, and a wig, probably of gold leaf.
    • Votive offering to Inanna as a thnaks for what she had done
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    • Presentation of offerings to Inanna (Warka Vase), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq
    • ca. 3200–3000 BCE
    • Alabaster
    • 3’ 1/4” high
    • Sumerian
    • In this oldest known example of Sumerian narrative art, the sculptor divided the tall stone vase's reliefs into registers, a significant break with the haphazard figure placement found in earlier art.
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    • Statuettes of two worshipers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar), Iraq
    • ca. 2700 BCE
    • Gypsum inlaid w/ shell and black limestone
    • male figure approx. 2’ 6” high
    • The oversized eyes probably symbolized the perpetual wakefulness of these substitute worshipers offering prayers to the deity. The beakers the figures hold were used to pour libations in honor of the gods.
    • "Substitute worshippers"- figures may have had your name blc regular people not allowed in temples= art was practical
  8. Seated statue of Gudea
    • Diorite (very hard stone)
    • 17 3/8 inches
    • Girsu, Iraq; then was city of Lagash
    • Ruled 2144-2124 BC, and there are 26 staues of him
    • Self-advertising= each stsaues has name, text written on it for dieties to read about all of the temples he built
    • Looks pious- how he wanted to be remembered
  9. Cuneiform Tablets
    • Writing first introduced 3400-3200 BC
    • Preists kept records, inventories of temples for when by carving into small baked tablets with reeds; could be fired or sun baked
    • Pictograms to more abstract cuneiform
  10. Lammasu
    • Lamassu (winged, human-headed bull), 
    • Flanked doorways, always in pairs
    • Five legs- 4 side, two front
    • Guardians
  11. Ishtar Gate
    • Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq
    • ca. 575 BCE
    • Glazed brick
    • Babylon under King Nebuchadnezzar II was one of the greatest cities of the ancient world. Its arcuated Ishtar (God of love and war) Gate featured glazed bricks depicting Marduk and Nabu's dragon and Adad's bull.
    • Lions of molded brick on both sides, walking you in
    • Processional entrance= makes an impression
  12. Rosetta Stone
    • Found in 1799 by Napolean's army
    • Had lines in Greek, Demotic (Late Egyptian), Hieroglyphics
    • Deciphered 1820s
    • Hieroglyphics can convey ideas or be phonetic
    • Writing very important- used to keep records, help tell story- often combined text & pics
  13. Image Upload 8
    • Palette of King Narmer (left, back; right, front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt
    • Predynastic, ca. 3000–2920 BCE
    • Slate
    • approx. 2’ 1” high
    • These earliest preserved labeled historical reliefs commemorate the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. (ended predynastic) Narmer, the largest figure, effortlessly defeats a foe on one side, and on the other surveys the beheaded enemy.
    • Less fromal palettes actually hold makeup= used to protect from sun
    • Votive for diety Horus
    • Hiero on top means Narmer
  14. Image Upload 9
    • Artist: IHMOTEP (first recorded artist)
    • Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III
    • ca. 2630-2611 BCE
    • Made of stone
    • Imhotep, the first artist whose name is recorded, built the first pyramid during the Third Dynasty for King Djoser. Djoser's pyramid resembles a series of stacked mastabas of diminishing size. (mastabas were for nobles; king needed something better)
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    • Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV. From left: Pyramids of Menkaure
    • ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; and Khufu, ca. 2551–2528 BCE
    • Limestone, w/ white limetone at top so with sun it looked like it was glowing
    • The Great Pyramids of Gizeh took the shape of the ben-ben, the emblem of the sun, Re. The sun's rays were the ramp the Egyptian pharaohs used to ascend to the heavens after their death and rebirth.
    • Used ramp, people paying their taxes to make
  16. Great Sphinx
    • Great Sphinx (with Pyramid of Khafre in the background at left), Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV
    • ca. 2520–2494 BCE
    • Sandstone
    • Carved out of the Gizeh stone quarry, the Great Sphinx is the largest statue in the Near East. The sphinx is associated with the sun god, and joins the body of a lion with the head of a pharaoh
  17. Image Upload 11
    • Menkaure and Khamerernebty(?), from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV
    • ca. 2490–2472 BCE
    • Graywacke
    • The double portrait of Menkaure and his wife displays the conventional postures used for statues designed as substitute homes for the ka. 
    • Found beneath temple- "Back up" for ka in case the mummy was destroyed
  18. Seated Scribe
    • Seated scribe, from Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty IV
    • ca. 2500 BCE
    • Painted limestone
    • The idealism that characterizes the portraiture of the Egyptian god-kings did not extend to the portrayal of non-elite individuals. This more realistic painted portrait of a scribe shows clear signs of aging.
    • Showed importance of scribes- there were so many in Egypt
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    • Hatshepsut with offering jars, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII
    • ca. 1473–1458 BCE
    • Red granite
    • approx. 8’ 6” high
    • Many of Hatshepsut's portraits were destroyed after her death. Conservators reassembled this one, which depicts the queen as a male pharaoh with false beard, no breasts= sent an image
    • Ruled for 22 years
    • Kneeling in front of solar diety w/ maat= shows she is ruling w/ justice
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    • Façade of the Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, Dynasty 19th dynasty, ruled for 63 years
    • ca. 1290–1224 BCE
    • Sandstone
    • Four rock-cut images of Ramses II dominate the facade of his mortuary temple at Abu Simbel in Nubia. The colossal portraits are a dozen times the height of a man, even though the pharaoh is seated (65 feet tall)
    • Show his great power, makes an impression on any enemies
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    • Akhenaton, from the Temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII; Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII
    • ca. 1353–1335 BCE
    • Sandstone; limestone
    • This art is also a deliberate reaction against tradition- shows him more realistically, w/ several physical deformities probably from inbreeding
    • this sunken relief the Amarna artist provided a rare intimate look at the royal family in a domestic setting. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three of their daughters bask in the life-giving rays of Aton, the sun disk.
    • Not perfect= bulging belly (break from tradition), babies have long-shaped skulls
    • Built completely new capital- religious revolution- did away w/ preists, said Aton was the only god and he was his only prophet
  22. Image Upload 16
    • Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, New Kingdom
    • ca. 1323 BCE
    • Gold with inlay of enamel, semiprecious stones
    • The boy-king Tutankhamen's fame today is due to the discovery of his treasure-laden tomb. His mummy was encased in three nested coffins. The innermost one, made of gold, portrays the pharaoh as Osiris (head god)
    • Had to make sure ka could recognize body after it died, or one could not live in afterlife- mask shows this, body was very preserved
    • Son of Akhenaton and his sister, very insig ruler but very important because his great treasure was found in 1922 by Howard Carter, mostly unlooted
    • Went back to monthesim
  23. Image Upload 17
    • THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII  Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
    • ca. 1353–1335 BCE
    • Nefertiti, Akhenaton's influential wife, is portrayed here as an elegant beauty, with a pensive expression and a long, delicately curved neck. The unfinished portrait was found in Thutmose's workshop.
    • Showed some expression- break from earlier work, showed very realistically
    • Like flower- delicate stem and big flower
    • Time of moving from polytheism to monotheism
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Art and world
Art and world