Droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns; measles; chickenpox (varicella); disseminated varicella-zoster; pulmonary or laryngeal TB
Droplets larger than 5 microns; being within 3 feet of the patient; diphtheria (pharyngeal); rubella; streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, or scarlet fever in infants and young children; pertussis; mumps; mycoplasma pneumonia; meningococcal pneumonia or sepsi; pneumonic plague
Direct patient or environmental contact; colonization or infection with multi-drug resistant organisms such as VRE and MRSA, Clostridium difficle, or respiraotry syntyial virus; draining wounds if secretions are not contained; scabies
What is the arterial pressure of a newborn?
40 mm Hg
What is the arterial pressure of a 1 month old?
85/54 mm Hg
What is the arterial pressure of a 1 year old?
95/65 mm Hg
What is the arterial pressure of a 6 year old?
105/65 mm Hg
What is the arterial pressure of 10-13 year olds?
110/65 mm Hg
What is the arterial pressure of 14-17 year olds?
119/75 mm Hg
flat, nonpalpable change in skin color, smaller than 1.0 cm
palpable, circumscribed, solide elavation in skin, smaller than 0.5 cm
papule (elevated nevus)
elevated solid mass, deeper and firmer than papule, 0.5 - 2.0 cm
solid mass that extends deep through subcutaneous tissue, larger than 1.0 to 2.0 cm
irregularly shaped, elevated area or superficial localized edeam, varies in size
wheal (hive, mosquito bite)
circumscribed elevation of skin filled with serous fluid, smaller than 1.0 cm
vesicle (chicken pox)
circumscribed elevation of skin similar to vesicle but filled with pus, varies in size
deep loss of skin surface that sometimes extends to dermis and frequently bleeds and scars, varies in size
ulcer (venous stasis ulcer)
thinning of skin with loss of normal skin furrow with skin appearing shiny and translucent, varies in size
atrophy (arterial insufficiency)
approximately 160-degree angle between nail plate and nail
change in angle between nail and nail base (eventually greater than 180 degrees); nail bed softening, with nail flattening; often enlargement of finger tips
Causes: chronic lack of oxygen: heart or pulmonary disease
transverse depressions in nails indicating temporary disturbance of nail growth (mail grows out over several months)
Causes: systemic illness such as severe infection; nail injury
Koilonychia (spoon nail)
Causes: iron deficiency anemia, syphilis, use of strong detergents
red or brown linear streaks in nail bed.
causes: minor trauma, subacute bacterial endocarditis, trichinosis
inflammation of skin at base of nail
causes: local infection, trauma
fine crackles are high-pitched fine, short, interrupted crackling sounds heard during end of inspiration, usually not cleared with coughing; moist crackles are lower, more moist sounds heard during middle of inspiration, not cleared with coughing; course crackles are loud, bubble sounds heard during inspiration, not cleared with coughing
loud, low-pitched, rumbling coarse sounds heard either during inspiration or expiration; may be cleared with coughing
rhonchi (sonorous wheeze)
high-pitched, continuous musical sounds like a squeak heard continuously during inspiration or expiration; usually louder on expiration
wheezes (sibilant wheeze)
has dry, grating quality heard during inspiration; dose not clear with coughing; heard loudest over lower lateral anterior surface
pleural friction rub
What is the normal body temperature?
96.8 to 100.4
temperature of the deep tissues
What controls neural, and vascular temperature?
How does the hypothalamus control body temperature?
lower temperature through sweat and vasodilation and raises temperature through shivering and vasoconstriction
non shivering thermogenesis
occurs in neonates because they can't shiver - a limited amount of brown adipose tissue present at birth can be metabolized to create heat
involuntary response to temperature differences in the body. shivering can increase heat production 4-5 times greater than normal
the transfer of heat between objects without physical contact
up to 85% of the human's body surface radiates heat to the environment
transfer of heat from one object to antoher, when warm skin touches a cooler object, heat transfers from the skin until temps are simliar. conducts through solids, gases and liquids
transfer heat away from the body by air movement. heat loss increases when moistened skin comes into contact with slightly moving air
transfer of heat energy when liquid is changed to a gas - body continuously looses heat by evaporation, about 600-900 mL of water a day evaporates from skin and the lungs
uncontrolled shivering, loss of memory, depression, poor judgement
a regular interval interrupted by an early beat, late beat, or a missed beat
microorganisms capable of causing disease
Microorganism(s) that can make you sick (Pathogenic organisms)
A place where microorganisms survive, multiply, and wait to transfer to a susceptible host.
portal of exit
Skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract, etc
modes of transmission
Airborne, droplets, contact, vesicle, vector
portal of entry
broken skin, mucous membranes, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, etc.
any individual. Immune system helps make less susceptible
The 6 steps in the chain of infection are:
infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, modes of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
one-celled microorganisms capable of multiplying rapidly within a susceptible host. Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics.
Viruses are small microorganisms that cause significant morbidity. Because replication of the virus occurs within the host cell, killing the virus without harming the host cell is seldom possible. Prevention (immunizations, hygiene) is still the best way to combat viral illness.
layers of the skin
Epidermis - the most outermost layer. The base of the epidermis continually produces new cells to replace those at the surface.
Dermis - strong connective tissue that contains nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair roots, is well supplied with blood vessels
The subcutaneous layer lies beneath the dermis.
how does a corticosteroid work?
Corticosteroids reduce heat production by interfering with the hypothalamic response. These drugs mask signs of infection by suppressing the immune system. Corticosteroids are not used to treat a fever.
right vs wrong size of BP cuff
Cuff too Big: B/P too low (false low reading)
Cuff too Small: B/P too high (false high reading)
what are orthostatic hypotension risk factors?
Fluid volume deficit from decreased blood volume, Dehydration, Recent blood loss, Prolonged bed rest, Anemia, Antihypertensive meds
CANNOT BE DELEGATED TO A CNA!!
drugs that reduce fever and generally ordere by health care providers if fever is over 102.2 degress
reduce fever by increasing heat loss; these drugs include: Acetaminophen (Tylenol); Salicylates (Aspirin); Indomethacin (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory); Ibuprophen; Keterolac (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory)
4+ - Very brisk, hyperactive with clonus (Clonus is a repetitive, usually rhythmic, and variably sustained reflex
response elicited by manually stretching the tendon), indicative of disease.
3+ - Brisker than average, may indicate disease
2+ - Average, normal
1+ - Diminished, low normal
0 - No response
Prehypertension B/P reading
120-139 over 80-89
Stage 1 hypertension B/P reading
140-159 over 90-99
Stage 2 hypertension reading
greater than or equal to 160 over greater than or equal to 100