Biology 101 Ch 1

  1. Life Hierachy of organization
    • 1. Bioshpere
    • 2. Ecosystem (florida coast)
    • 3. Community (all organisms on the florida coast)
    • 4. Population ( group of brown pelicans)
    • 5 organism ( a brown pelican)
    • 6. Organ system ( nervous system )
    • 7. Organ ( brain)
    • 8. Tissue ( nervous tissue)
    • 9. cell ( nerve cell)
    • 10. organelle (nucleus )
    • 11. Molecule (DNA)
  2. Emergent properties
    • New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarcy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
    • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
  3. Producers
    An organism that makes organic food molecules from CO2 H2O and other inorganic raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic prokaryote
  4. Consumers
    An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants.
  5. Systems biology
    An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems.
  6. prokaryotic cell
    A typpe of cell lacking a membrane- enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
  7. Eukaryotic cell
    A type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and toher membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms exept bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells. 
  8. genes
    A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotidie sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses). Most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and choloroplasts. 
  9. Properties that are common to all organisms
    • Order
    • Regulation
    • Growth and development
    • Energy processing
    • Response to the environment
    • Reproduction
    • Evoluutionary adaptation
  10. Species
    term used for a particular type of organism
  11. Domains.
    kingdoms of life can be organized into three overarching groups 
  12. Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea both consist of  ____
    Prokaryotes -organisms with prokaryotic cells. (Most prokaryotes are unicellular and microscopic. )
  13. Domain Eukarya
    All the eukaryote, organisms with eukaryotic cells, are now grouped into the various kingdoms of Eukarya
  14. Awatic or moist habitats of Eukarya are called
  15. Protists
    Mulitiple kingdoms within this sub domain.Some protists make their own food by photosynthsis. 
  16. Protozoans 
    animal-like in that the eat other organisms. Also another assortment of protists. 
  17. kingdoms within Eukarya (excluding Protists) are ____ eukaryotes
  18. Kingdoms within Eukarya
    2) distingushed partly by what?
    • Protsts (multiple kingdoms);
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Distinguished partly by their modes of nutrition.
  19. Kingdom Plantae consists of what? what is the food source?
    Consits of plants which produce their own food by photosynthesis and have cells with rigid walls made of cellulose.
  20. Kingdom Fungi consists of what? what is the main food source?
    Molds, yeasts and mushrooms. Decomposition.
  21. Kingdom  Animalia consists of what? what is the food source?
    Animals (lions and tigers and bears... OH MY!) Eat other organisms.
  22. Decomposition
    break down the remains of dead organisms and organic wastes such as leaf litter and animal feces, and absorb the nutrients into their cells
  23. Most animals are motile which means they are...
    made of cells that lack rigid walls. 
  24. Evolution
    Species living today are descendants of ancestral species (descent with modification) through natural selection
  25. natural selection
  26. Two observations of Darwin in his theory
    • Individual variation
    • Overproduction of offspring.
  27. individual variation
    individuals in a propulation vary in many heritable traits.
  28. overproductionof offspring
    a populationof any species has the potential to produce far more offspring than will survive to produce offspring of their own
  29. Two inferences of Darwin
    • Unequal reproductive sucess
    • over time, favorable traits accumulate in a population
  30. Unequal reproductive sucess suggests:
    individuals are uneaual in their likelihood of surviving and reproducing. Those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the environment will leave the greatest number of healthy, fertile offspring. 
  31. Science is derived from a latin verb meaning 
  32. Science seeks natural causes for:
    natural phenomena
  33. Science is limited to the study of :
    structures and processes that we can ovserve and measure through any measures. 
  34. Inductive reasoning
    derives general principles from a large number of specific observations. 
  35. hypothesis
    proposed explanation for a set of observations. A good one leads to predictions that scientists can test by recording additional observations or by designing experiments.
  36. Deductive reasoning 
    the logic used in hypothesis based science to come up with ways to test hypotheses. Reasoning flows from the general to the specific. 
  37. Theory
    explains a great diversity of bservations and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence. Can generate new hypotheses.
Card Set
Biology 101 Ch 1
Chapter One