Psychology Chapter 2

  1. Naturalistic observation
    a scientific method that describes how people or animals behave in their natural environment
  2. Participant observation
    a scientific method in which a researcher describes behavior as it occurs in its natural environment, and does so as a participant of the group being studied
  3. Case study
    a scientific method involving an in-depth analysis off a single subject
  4. Correlational research
    a scientific method that assesses the nature of the relationship between two or more variables that are not controoled by the researcher
  5. Survey
    a structured set of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors
  6. Correlation coefficient
    the statistic, or numberical value, that psychologists use to describe the relationship between two variables
  7. Advantages of Correlational Research
    Prediction-you can predict the change in one variable by knowing the value of another variable
  8. Disadvantages of Coreelational Research
    Cannot determine the cause of the relationship between two cariables

    Cannot rule out the possibility that a third, unmeasured cariable is causing the changes in both variables being studied
  9. Experiment
    A scientific method in which researchers manipulate, or change, a variable to observe the effect on some other variable
  10. Independent variable
    the variable that is manipulated in an experiment
  11. Dependent variable
    The variable that may change in response to the manipulated changes in the independent variable
  12. Random Assignment
    A procedure ensuring that all research participants have an equal chance of being placed into either the experimental of control conditions
  13. Scientific Methods
    consist of a set of procedures used to gather, analyze, and interpret information in a way that reduces error and leads to dependent conclusions
  14. Critical Thinking
    the process of deciding what to believe and how to act based on a careful evaluation of the evidence
  15. Guidlines to Critical Thinking
    • Be willing to ask questions
    • analyze assumptions
    • examine the evidence
    • be caustious of emotional decisions
    • tolerate uncertainty
  16. Theory
    an organized system of ideas that seeks to explain why two or more events are related
  17. Hypothesis
    an educated guess, or prediction, about the nature of things based on a theory
  18. Sample
    a group of subjects who ar selected to participate in a research study
  19. Random Selection
    A procedure for selecting a sample of people to study in which everyone in the population has an equal chance of being chosen
  20. Variables
    Factors in the study that can be measured and that are capable of changing, or varying
  21. Operational Definition
    A very clear description of how a variable has been measured
  22. Replication
    The repeating of an earlier study's scientific procedures, using different partcipants in an attempt to duplicate the findings
  23. Statistics
    a branch of mathematics that allows researches to organize, describe, and make meaningful inferences from data they collect
  24. Descriptive Statistics
    numbers that summarizes and describe data in a practical, efficient manner
  25. Central Tendency
    a number that describes the central location within a distribution of scores in a sample
  26. Mean
    arithmetic average of the distribution of scores for a particular variable
  27. Median
    middles core in a distribution of scores after you rank the scores from lowest to highest
  28. Mode
    the score that occures most frequently in a distribution
  29. Normal Distribution
    bell-shaped curve that occurs on a graph when the mean, median, and mode are identical values
  30. Standard Deviation
    a measure of variation that indicates the average difference between the scores in a distribution and their mean
  31. Inferential Statistics
    the mathematical methods used to determine whether the data support or do not support the research hypothesis
Card Set
Psychology Chapter 2