1. Drugs and factors that prolong QT intervals?
    • Defects in cardiac sodium or potassium channels
    • Macrolides (erythromycin)
    • Antimalarials (chloroquine, mephaquine)
    • Haloperidol
    • Risperidone
    • Methadone
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Antiarrythmics (class IA)
    • K+ channel blockers
  2. Treatment of Torsades de Pointes
  3. What is the treatment for the syndrome that produces delta waves through the use of bundle of Kent?
    • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
    • TX: Procainamide and Amiodarone
  4. What microorganism leads to AV nodal block?
    Borrelia burgdoferi = complete heart block
  5. Stimulation and MOA of ANP
    Increase in blood volume and atrial pressure = activation

    • MOA:
    • vascular relaxation
    • constricts efferent arteriole and dilates afferent arteriole = increased diuresis.
  6. Cushing triad and and how it is started?
    • Hypertension
    • bradycardia
    • respiratory depression

    INcreased ICP constricts arterioles -> cerebral ischemia -> sympathetic hypertension(restore blood flow to brain) -> reflex bradycardia -> increased pressure on brainstem -> depressed respirations
  7. Heart defect associated with Turners syndrome
    • Infantile type coarctation of the aorta.
    • Preductal
  8. What keeps the PDA open in the neonatal period?
    PGE synthesis and low O2 tension
  9. Congenital cardiac defect assoicated with congeital rubella
    • Septal defects
    • PDA
    • pulmonary artery stenosis
  10. Monckeberg
    • Calicification in the media of the arteries, esp radial or ulnar.
    • Benign, no blood flow obstruction, and intima not involved.
  11. Untreated streptococcus pyogenes.
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Antigenic similaritiy between bacterial antigens and normal "self" antigens in the heart and CNS lead to anti-self antibodies.
    • myocarditis -> mitral/aortic insufficiency
  12. What occurs 5-10 days after an MI?
    GROSS: Hyperemic border; central yellow brown softening

    Risk for free wall rupture, tamponade, papillary muscle rupture, interventricular septal rupture; due to macrophages degrading important structural components.
  13. Causes of Dilated cardiomyopathy
    • Alcohol
    • wet beriberi
    • Coxsackie B viure myocarditis
    • chronic cocaine use
    • Chagas disease
    • Doxorubicin
    • Hemochromatosis
    • peripartum cardiomyopathy
  14. Difference between Osler's nodes and Janeway lesions
    Osler's nodes- tender raised lesions on finger or toe pads

    Janeway Lesions- small painless erythematous lesions on palm or sole
  15. JONES in Rheumatic heart disease
    • Joints (migratory polyarthtritis)
    • O pancarditis
    • Nodules subcutaneous
    • Erythema marginatum
    • Sydenham's Chorea
  16. Treatment of disease that is characterized by focal necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing granulomas in the lung and upper airway, and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
    Wegeners granulomatosis

    TX: Cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids
  17. 2 p-ANCA positive vasculitides
    • Microscopic polyangiitis:
    • ~ Wegeners without the granulomas
    • Affects small vessels

    • Churg-Strauss syndrome:
    • granulomatous vasculitis with eosinophilia
    • Present with asthma, sinusitis, skin lesions, and peripheral neuropathy
  18. Kawasaki disease
    Acute, self limiting necrotizing vasculitis in infants/children. Associated with asian ethnicity.

    changes in lips/oral mucosa, lymphadenitis, desquamative skin rash. May develop coronary aneurysms.
  19. Bacillary angiomatosis
    Benign capillary skin papules found in AIDS patients. Caused by Bartonella henselae infections.
  20. Essential hypertension therapy
    • Diuretics(thiazide)
    • ACE inhibitors
    • angiotensin II receptor blockers
    • calcium channel blockers
  21. Hydralazine
    increase cGMP -> smooth mucle relaxation -> afterload reduction

    • FOR:
    • severe hypertension(also pregnancy with methyldopa)
    • CHF

    • S/E: compensatory tachycardia
    • increase renin release
  22. Fenoldopam
    Dopamine D1 receptor agonist

    relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle
  23. Diazoxide
    K+ channel opener

    • Hyperpolarizes and relaxes vascular smooth muscle.
    • Can cause hyperglycemia
  24. Names of drugs in Dihydropyridine CCB
    • Nifedipine
    • Amlodipine
    • Felodipine
    • Nicardipine
    • Nisoldipine
  25. Partial B-agonists contraindicated in angina
    • Pindolol
    • acebutolol
  26. Digoxin
    • MOA:
    • inhbits Na/K ATPase
    • stimulates vagus nerve -> decreased conduction at AV node and depression of SA node
Card Set
Cardiology study