Explain ages affects on hair:
the hair thins and pigment loss causes hair to turn grey
Explain aging affects on the eyes:
- Lenses become less flexible making focusing difficult. There also become densor making it difficult to see in dim light.
- Increased risk of developing cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration
Age effects on the ears:
nerve cells deteriorate causing gradual hearing loss
Age effects on the mouth and teeth:
Saliva production if reduced, the gums start to recede, tooth enamel thins and cavaties and tooth loss become more common
Age effects on the Brain:
- some loss of nerve cells and reduced amount of neurotransmitter substances produced
- slower reflexes and poorer coordination, minor memory loss can occur
Age effects on the skin:
- becomes thinner, drier, less elastic and more wrinkled.
- Temperature control is more difficult due to the skin thinning and a reduction in sweat glands
Age effects on the lungs:
- lung capacity decreases due to increased rigidity of the chest wall and loss of elasticity of lung tissue
- breathing muscles weaken and the lungs start to absorb slighty less oxygen
Age effects on the Heart:
- Can become less efficient and take longer to respond to any increase in physical activity.
- Vessels supplying heart muscle can degenerate and become blocked with fatty deposits
Age effects on the Breasts:
some glandular tissue is replaced with fibrous tissue, causing them to loose firmness
Age effects on the immune system:
- the system takes longer to respond when fighting disease and to recover from infections.
- Some allergies become less severe
Age effects on the Digestive System:
- movement of food slows through the gut causing constipation.
- A decrease in digestive enzymes also reduces digestion efficiency
Age effects on the Kidneys:
these organs begin to get slightly smaller after the ago of 30 but generally function adequately in old age.
Age effects on the Arteries:
- these blood vessels loose some of their elasticity and their walls become thicker ane less flexible
- This 'hardening' of the walls makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood through them, causing an increased pressure
Age effects on the Bladder:
- in women, muscles od the urinary sphincter that control urine flow often weaken and lead to urine leakage.
- in men, the prostate gland enlargens blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder.
- frequent blockage can lead to incomplete bladder emptying.
Age effects on the reproductive systems:
- in women, the cessation os ovulation results in the cessation of menstration (menopause).
- the vagina looses elasticity and the production of natural lubrication which can make sexual intercourse uncomfortable
- the ovaries and uterus become smaller
- in men, sperm production decreases with age but most men remain fertile until death.
Age efects on bones:
bone density decrease with age, making bones more brittle, prone to breakage
Age effects on muscles?
these lose bulk and strength as a person ages. The amount of physical acitivy sustained can alter the rate of muscle weakening
Age effects on the joints:
- synovial fluid decreases with age, reducing joint mobility
- the articular cartilage also thins and can degenerate, making joint movement painful
- external, eg supports, bionic limbs
- internal, eg artificial joints and physiotherapy
- dietary supplements
- tissue regeneration
- grafting and transplantation
Human life span:
- diseases and treatments of an aging population
- quality of life and authanasia
Aids for mobility: mechanical technologies
- - Repair, devices or equipment that can assist in the repair or replacement of diseased or injured body parts eg. replacement limbs, bionic limbs
- - Mobility, devices or equipment that provide a means of transportation eg. scooters
- - Support, devices or equipment that help support injured bones and muscles eg. splints, braces, walking sticks, crutches and walking frames
Dietary supplements: chemical technologies
usually tablets with vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids that may be defficient in diet
Drugs: chemical technologies
reduce or cure symptoms of debilitating disorder
Tissue regeneration: biological technologies
from stem cell technology (may be able to grow new organs)
Grafts and Organ transplantation: biological technologies
replace defective organ
Aging population diseases:
- - osteoarthritis
- - osteoporosis
- - cerebrovascular disease
- - chronic kidney disease
- - colorectal cancer
- - Alzheimer's disease
- - Parkinson's disease
- - deficiency in a neurotransmitter in the brain cell dopamine
- - managed by medication that relives the symptoms
- - no cure and results in deaths
- - new treatment may be possible with cell replacement therapy
- - progressing degeneration illness that attacks the brain
- - linked to degeneration of neurons in the brain due to plaque coating
- - mostly affects ober 65 years of age
- - often begins with memory lapses and vocabulary difficulty
- - progress at different rates in individuals and may vary on a daily basis
- - treatment is limited with very few drugs having any affect
Bones and Joints:
- - bone mass begins to reduce from approximately 30 to 40 years of age
- - due to decreased rate of bone production but bone reabsorption remaining at the same rate.
- - changes in hormone levels result in decline in bone strength
- - repair processes slow down
- - vertebrae may collapse leading to joints to distortion and pressure on spinal nerves
- - intervertebral discs shrink and, with loss in bone mass, a decrease in height and spinal curvature result
- - caused by degernation of cartilage and the formation of bony outgrowths called spurs around the adges of the degenerative cartilage
- - this results in painful, stiff and inflammed joints, limiting movements
- - painkillers like paracetamol relieve pain by reducing inflammation
- - surgically replacing the affected joint with an artificial joint of metal, plastic or ceramic
- - caused by bones that are less dense than normal bone
- - fractures are more common even with minor injuries
- - bone growth is a balance between bone formation and bone reabsorption
- - as people age bone production slows but bone reabsorption still continues at the same pace. over time bone density decreases
Prevention of osteoporosis:
- - high clacium and vitamin D in the diet from an early age
- - regular weight-bearing exercise
- - avoid alcohol or smoking
- - in older women HRT helps replacement of oestrogen which helps maintain bone mass