Medical Technology

  1. Explain ages affects on hair:
    the hair thins and pigment loss causes hair to turn grey
  2. Explain aging affects on the eyes:
    • Lenses become less flexible making focusing difficult.  There also become densor making it difficult to see in dim light.
    • Increased risk of developing cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration
  3. Age effects on the ears:
    nerve cells deteriorate causing gradual hearing loss
  4. Age effects on the mouth and teeth:
    Saliva production if reduced, the gums start to recede, tooth enamel thins and cavaties and tooth loss become more common
  5. Age effects on the Brain:
    • some loss of nerve cells and reduced amount of neurotransmitter substances produced
    • slower reflexes and poorer coordination, minor memory loss can occur
  6. Age effects on the skin:
    • becomes thinner, drier, less elastic and more wrinkled.
    • Temperature control is more difficult due to the skin thinning and a reduction in sweat glands
  7. Age effects on the lungs:
    • lung capacity decreases due to increased rigidity of the chest wall and loss of elasticity of lung tissue
    • breathing muscles weaken and the lungs start to absorb slighty less oxygen
  8. Age effects on the Heart:
    • Can become less efficient and take longer to respond to any increase in physical activity.
    • Vessels supplying heart muscle can degenerate and become blocked with fatty deposits
  9. Age effects on the Breasts:
    some glandular tissue is replaced with fibrous tissue, causing them to loose firmness
  10. Age effects on the immune system:
    • the system takes longer to respond when fighting disease and to recover from infections.
    • Some allergies become less severe
  11. Age effects on the Digestive System:
    • movement of food slows through the gut causing constipation.
    • A decrease in digestive enzymes also reduces digestion efficiency
  12. Age effects on the Kidneys:
    these organs begin to get slightly smaller after the ago of 30 but generally function adequately in old age.
  13. Age effects on the Arteries:
    • these blood vessels loose some of their elasticity and their walls become thicker ane less flexible
    • This 'hardening' of the walls makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood through them, causing an increased pressure
  14. Age effects on the Bladder:
    • in women, muscles od the urinary sphincter that control urine flow often weaken and lead to urine leakage. 
    • in men, the prostate gland enlargens blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder.
    • frequent blockage can lead to incomplete bladder emptying.
  15. Age effects on the reproductive systems:
    • in women, the cessation os ovulation results in the cessation of menstration (menopause).
    • the vagina looses elasticity and the production of natural lubrication which can make sexual intercourse uncomfortable
    • the ovaries and uterus become smaller 
    • in men, sperm production decreases with age but most men remain fertile until death.
  16. Age efects on bones:
    bone density decrease with age, making bones more brittle, prone to breakage
  17. Age effects on muscles?
    these lose bulk and strength as a person ages.  The amount of physical acitivy sustained can alter the rate of muscle weakening
  18. Age effects on the joints:
    • synovial fluid decreases with age, reducing joint mobility
    • the articular cartilage also thins and can degenerate, making joint movement painful
  19. Mechanical Technologies:
    • external, eg supports, bionic limbs
    • internal, eg artificial joints and physiotherapy
  20. Chemical Technologies
    • dietary supplements
    • pharmaceuticals
  21. Biological Technologies:
    • tissue regeneration
    • grafting and transplantation
  22. Human life span:
    • diseases and treatments of an aging population
    • quality of life and authanasia
  23. Aids for mobility: mechanical technologies
    • - Repair, devices or equipment that can assist in the repair or replacement of diseased or injured body parts eg. replacement limbs, bionic limbs
    •  - Mobility, devices or equipment that provide a means of transportation eg. scooters
    •  - Support, devices or equipment that help support injured bones and muscles eg. splints, braces, walking sticks, crutches and walking frames
  24. Dietary supplements: chemical technologies
    usually tablets with vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids that may be defficient in diet
  25. Drugs: chemical technologies
    reduce or cure symptoms of debilitating disorder
  26. Tissue regeneration: biological technologies
    from stem cell technology (may be able to grow new organs)
  27. Grafts and Organ transplantation: biological technologies
    replace defective organ
  28. Aging population diseases:
    •  - osteoarthritis
    •  - osteoporosis
    •  - cerebrovascular disease
    •  - chronic kidney disease
    •  - colorectal cancer
    •  - Alzheimer's disease
    •  - Parkinson's disease
  29. Parkinson's Disease:
    •  - deficiency in a neurotransmitter in the brain cell dopamine 
    •  - managed by medication that relives the symptoms
    •  - no cure and results in deaths
    •  - new treatment may be possible with cell replacement therapy
  30. Alzheimer's Disease:
    • - progressing degeneration illness that attacks the brain
    • - linked to degeneration of neurons in the brain due to plaque coating
    • - mostly affects ober 65 years of age
    • - often begins with memory lapses and vocabulary difficulty
    • - progress at different rates in individuals and may vary on a daily basis
    • - treatment is limited with very few drugs having any affect
  31. Bones and Joints:
    • - bone mass begins to reduce from approximately 30 to 40 years of age 
    • - due to decreased rate of bone production but bone reabsorption remaining at the same rate.
    • - changes in hormone levels result in decline in bone strength
    • - repair processes slow down
    • - vertebrae may collapse leading to joints to distortion and pressure on spinal nerves
    • - intervertebral discs shrink and, with loss in bone mass, a decrease in height and spinal curvature result
  32. Osteoarthritis:
    • - caused by degernation of cartilage and the formation of bony outgrowths called spurs around the adges of the degenerative cartilage
    • - this results in painful, stiff and inflammed joints, limiting movements
  33. Osteoarthritis treatments:
    • - painkillers like paracetamol relieve pain by reducing inflammation
    • - surgically replacing the affected joint with an artificial joint of metal, plastic or ceramic
  34. Osteporosis:
    • - caused by bones that are less dense than normal bone
    • - fractures are more common even with minor injuries
    • - bone growth is a balance between bone formation and bone reabsorption
    • - as people age bone production slows but bone reabsorption still continues at the same pace.  over time bone density decreases
  35. Prevention of osteoporosis:
    • - high clacium and vitamin D in the diet from an early age
    • - regular weight-bearing exercise
    • - avoid alcohol or smoking
    • - in older women HRT helps replacement of oestrogen which helps maintain bone mass
Card Set
Medical Technology
Year 12 Human Biology 3ab - medical technologies