Promoting heart health

  1. Atherosclerosis (atheroma)
    A disease proces of hardening or narrowing of the arteries due to excessive build up of  plaque within the artery, reducing the ease of blood flow through artery.

    Three stages: 

    Fatty streaks- damage to inner wall of the artery allows infiltration of fatty substances. Damage is minimal and blood flow not affected, reversible

    • Soft plaque - Repeated injury at the site of fatty plaques resulting in thickening of artery's middle layer. Bulges into channel of artery restricting blood flow.
    • Change occur by 30 years of age.
    • All three artery's wall is affected 

    • Hard plaque - all three layers of artery's wall affected
    • artery's channel is now almost blocked.
  2. Affect of atherosclerosis
    Atherosclerosis of the arteries to the brain can lead to stroke

    to the leg lead to gangrene

    to the heart lead to angina or heart attack
  3. Hypertension
    • >When systolic is above 140 and diastolic above 90
    • >Bp is the results of cardiac output and peripheral resistance
    • >Increase in cardiac output > increase stroke volume> increaes heart rate.
    • >Increase peripheral resistance may be due too vasoconstriction of ateries vessels or excessive fluid volume in vascular space
    • >Meds control blood pressure level to lower it
    • >may experience fatigue, depression, sexual desire
  4. What cause hypertension?
    • >Unknown, may be due to high salt intake, genetics and obesity and ageing
    • >secondary hypertension causes narrowing of aorta, renal, endocrine, neurological
    • >Narrowing of renal artery cause hypertension due to the impair circulation of blood to the kidney, causing kidney to produce renin and angiotensin (hormones)
    • >these hormones along with aldosterone cause constriction and incresed stiffness in peripheral arteries throughout the body resulting in hypertension.
  5. Problem associated with hypertension
    Hypertension can lead to:

    • Myocardial infactions ( heart attack)
    • Cerebrovascular accidents
    • Renal disease
    • Atheroclerosis
  6. Age and  hypertension
    • >Bp rises with age
    • >more common in young, middle male adulthood
    • >more common in women aged 55+
    • >Age related changes is dud to loss of tissue elasticity, stiffness of myocardium, increased peripheral resistance, decreased renal function, decreased renin response to sodium and water reduction
  7. Glucose, Nicotine and hypertension
    Nicotine causes vasoconstricion, carbon monoxide damages the lining of vessels

    Abnormalities of glucose/insulin impairs vasodilation ( dilation of vessels)
  8. Treatment for hypertension
    Lifestyle modifications

    Medications- ace inhabitors, beta blockers, diuretic, calcium channel blockers
  9. Coronary artery disease (CAD)
    • >major cause of illness/death
    • >CAD begins when plaques are deposited within a coronary artery causing tiny clot to form which can obstruct flow of blood to heart muscle.
    • >signs/symptoms include:
    • chest pain - from inadequate blood flow to heart
    • heart attack - sudden total blockage of coronary artery
    • Sudden death - fatal disturbance of heart rhythm
  10. Angina
    • >Common symptom of heart disease
    • >described as unpleasant feeling or discomfort, tightness on chest
    • >Lasts a few minutes and can be relieved by rest or medication (glyceryl trinitrate - GTN)
    • >may develop without knowing
  11. Heart attack
    • >Complet blockage of blood flow to part of heart muscle causes permanent damage to heart muscle
    • >Pain last more than 15mins and cannot be relieved my mediacation ( GTN)
    • >
  12. Treating Angina
    Nitrate is commonly used to treat angina. Nitrate relax the blood vessels, opening them wider so blood can flow more freely.
  13. What cause Angina?
    • >Fatty deposits build up under the lining of coronary arteries causing arteries to become narrowed and reducing blood flow to heart
    • >pain (angina) occurs due to insufficient blood flow
    • >usually felt across centre of chest sometime both shoulders, neck, jaw, down arms and hands
    • > brought on by exertion, emotion, after heavy meal, cold weather, resting or at night time.
  14. Coronary antioplasty (artery opening)
    • > A procedure used to widen the narrowing in a coronary artery using special balloon.
    • > narrowing is caused by build-up of plaque in the walls of arteries
  15. Prevention of Cardiovascular disease 
    • >By doing cardio vascular risk assessment and promoting lifestyle changes to reduce risks.
    • > people with diabetes, renal disease, genetic lipid disorders are highly at risk 
  16. High cholesterol
    fasting blood test

    • Ratio is a good indicator of coronary heart disease
    • The higher the ration the higher the risk of CVD
    • LDL accounts for 60-70% of cholesterol
    • HDL accounts for 30%
  17. Measure of weight and truncal obesity
    BMI- weight and height

    • Waist circumference
    • Men- > 102cm
    • Women>88cm
  18. Risk assessment
    Use national heart foundation cardiovascular risk tables

    aims to reduced risk by 15%
  19. Intervention 
    healthy eating

    Physical activity

    Healthy weight

    Quit smoking (ABC smoking cessation)
  20. Medications that help reduce CVD risks


    Blood pressure lowering medications
Card Set
Promoting heart health
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