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  1. Any substance that cannot be split into simpler compounds
  2. How many elements occur naturally
  3. The Human body contains what and how many elements
    • 26
    • C, N, H, O = 96%
    • K, Na, Cl, Mg, P, Ca, S, Fe- 3.8%
  4. Smallest unit of matter made up of subatomic particles arranged in a central core (nucleus)
  5. Number of protons in the nucleus
    Atomic number
  6. Sum of protons and neutrons
    Mass number
  7. Identical elements with different mass number
  8. An atom with a + or - charge because it has an unequeal number of p+ or e-
  9. The resulting combo of two or more atoms that share electrons
  10. Substance that contain two or more different elements.
  11. Forces that hold together atoms of a molecule or compound
    Chemical Bonds
  12. 3 types of chemical bonds
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Hydrogen
  13. Process that involves energy change to provide that capacity to do work. In these, it occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms
    Chemical reactions
  14. Chemical reaction in which more energy is released then absorbed (used)
    Exergonic reaction
  15. Chemical reaction in which more energy is absorbed (used) then released.
    Endergonic reaction
  16. Factors that promote a chemical reaction
    • Conc of reactants
    • Temp
    • Catalysts
  17. 4 types of chemical reactions
    • Anabolic
    • Catabolic
    • Reversible
    • Exchange
  18. Two or more molecules join together forming a larger and complex molecule (e.g. proteins)
  19. A large molecule is split into its individual components (ATP production by glucose catabolism)
  20. Are depenent on enzymes and concentration of reactants
  21. Combination Reaction
  22. Large molecules that carry out complex functions. Composed of a chain of C atoms to which an array of distinctive functional groups are attached.
    Organic compounds
  23. Combination of small organic compounds called polymers (eg. glycogen- is a polymer of glucose units)
  24. apolar amino acids
    Leu, Iso,Val,Met,Pro,Tryp,Ty
  25. polar amino acids
    Asg, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, Thr, Arg, Lys, His
  26. Neutral amino acids
    Ala, Gly
  27. Polymers of the 20 common amino acids joined together by a peptide bond. Human peptide bonds always occur at cis because this form is more stable. The amount of rotation of the bonds is restricted to the side chains (r groups) at either side of the peptide bond. In general, the more bulkier, the more restricted the rotation.
  28. Represents the sequence of amino acids in a peptide chain including the disulfide bonds and post-translational changes.
    Primary structure
  29. Represents the twisting and folding of the neighboring amino acids in the polypeptide chain. It is stabalized by hydrogen bonds -ex alpha helix
    Secondary Structure
  30. Refers to the three dimensional shape of the polypeptide chain. It is supported by several types of bonds as disulfide bridges, hydrogen, ionic, and hydrophobic interaction
    ex- B-pleated sheet
    Tertiary Structure
  31. Arrangements of individual polypeptide bonds relative to one another.
    Quaternary Structure
  32. Comprised of a nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine) a pentose sugar (rib or dexyrib) and a phosphate group. A specific sequence of purines and pyrimidines encode the genetic info of the human cell.
    Nucleic Acids
  33. Levels of Complexity of Cells
    Atomical, Molecular, Compound, Cellular, Tissues, Organs, Systems
  34. Characteristics of living organisms
    Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, Reproduction
  35. Cell components
    Plasma membrane, Cytosol, Organelles, Inclusions
  36. Composed of 75% phospholipids, 20% cholesterol, and 5% glycolipids
    Lipid bilayer
  37. 2 types of protein
    Integral and Peripheral
  38. Amphipathic molecule with a hydrophillic phosphate head, and a hydrophobic fatty tail
  39. An Amphipathic molecule 
    - works with cell adhesion, cell to cell recognition and communication, and regulation of growth and development.
  40. Membrane Protein Functions
    • Channels
    • Transporters
    • Receptor
    • Enzyme
    • Cytoskeleton anchor
    • Cell identity markers
  41. Selective permeability depends on:
    • Lipid soluability
    • Size
    • Charge
    • Channels or Transporters
  42. Passive process 
    • Depends on pressure or concentration differences and diffusion.
    • 1- Simple diffusion
    • 2- Osmosis
    • 3- Bulk Flow
    • 4- Facilitated Diffusion
  43. Process of random mixture of particles in a solution acheiving equilibrium Without Using Energy.
    ex- O2, CO2, small COH, H2), lipid soluable
    Simple Diffusion
  44. Factors hat influence diffusion
    • Steepness of conc. gradient
    • Temperature
    • Mass of diffusion substance
    • Surface area
    • Diffusuon distance
  45. Diffusion of a solvent through a selective membrane. It is determined by the osmotic pressure (the pressure required to stop the net movement of pure water through a selective membrane)
  46. Movement of large volume of particles dissolved or carried in a medium (air flow, capillary blood flow)
    Bulk Flow
  47. Movement of molecules through a selective membrane aided by specific membrane proteins that serve as channels or transporters (eg. glucose, vitamins, ions)
    Facilitated Diffusion
  48. Saturation point 
    When all of the transporters are occupied, the maximum is reached.
    Transport Maximum
  49. Energy spending process for the movement of a molecule against a concentration gradient.
    Active process
  50. Movement of molecules across a selective membrane from a lower to a higher concentration area by pump proteins using energy released by splitting ATP
    (eg. Ions, Na+, K+, Cl-, H+)
    Primary Active Process
  51. Simultaneous movement of two substances, one of which is Na+ (supplies energy) against a concentration gradient maintained by a primary active transport.
    Secondary Active Process
  52. Moves Na+ and a substance in the same direction across the membrane.
  53. Moves Na+ and another substance in opposite directions across the membrane.
  54. Process through which small vesicles bud from a cell membrane to bring in or out material.
    3 types: Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Transcytosis
    Vesicular transport
  55. Phagocytosis (cell eating)
    Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
  56. Process for exporting substances from the cell
    (eg. neurotransmitters, hormones, digestive enzymes)
  57. eg. antibodies crossing the placenta
  58. Gel like fluid in which the cells metabolic reactions occur. Contains suspended particles, minute filaments, and tubules
    75-90% H2O
  59. Specialized structures related with cell growth, repair, and maintenance.
  60. Internal network of proteins inside the cytoplasm involved in locomotion, phagocytosis, and cell wall strength.
  61. Rod like structure composed of actin filaments that provides support and movement assisting in cell shape.
  62. Largest of the cytoskeletal components. Cylindrical structure consists of tubulin. Major function is assembly of centromeres during cell division.
  63. Mainly composed of microtubules. Both structures are motile but only the flagella allows for locomotion.
    Flagella and Cilia
  64. Largest Organelle. Is enclosed in a bi-layer membrane continuous with the ER. It harbors the genetic blueprints that directs cell division and production of proteins. Its nucleoli is involved in the production of rRNA.
  65. Membrane bound network of channels providing surface area for chemical reactions
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  66. Related with synthesis of lipids and detoxification of drugs.
    Smooth ER
  67. Synthesis for proteins to be exported
    Rough ER
  68. Cytoplasmic site for protein translation and assembly. Some are free in the cytoplasm, while others are attached to the ER. 2 subunits Large 80's, and Small 30's
  69. Membrane enclosed cisternae where proteins and lipids are packaged into secretory vesicles for export or insertion into the cell membrane.
    Golgi complex
  70. Specialized vesicles which contain digestive enzymes for breakdown of nutrients and foreign bodies. Involved in Autophagy.
  71. Specialized vesicles which contains enzymes for oxidation of organic substances.
  72. Cytoplasmic and nuclear organelle involved in the destruction of unneeded or damage proteins
  73. Organelle in which energy is produced during cellular respiration.
  74. Include normal endogenous compounds and storage of nutrients- ex lipofusin, melanin, glycogen
    Cell inclusions
  75. An iron storage compound found within the cell. Is brown colored)
  76. Grandular yellow-brown pigmented granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion.
  77. Sequence of events through which a cell undergoes complete division with a final product of two identical cells
    Cell cycle
  78. Is the cell cycle similar in all cells?
    No, it depends on the types of cells.. but it does have similar events.
  79. Cells which proceed through the cell cycle from one mitosis to the next proliferating throughout its life.
    Continuously dividing (labile) cells
  80. Squamous cells
    Surfaces of the skin, oral cavity, vagina, cervix
  81. Cuboidal epithelium
    Ducts of endocrine and exocrine glands
  82. Columner epithelium
    GI tract, Uterus, Fallopian tubes, Transitional epithelium of the urinary tract and the hematopoietic cell.
  83. Quiescent (stable) cells
    Demonstrate low level of reproduction under adequate stimuli promotes rapid increase in cell division.

    ex- Hepatocytes, pancreatic, kidney, endothelial and smooth muscle cells
  84. Nondividing (permanent) cells
    • Cells which exited cell cycle at some point during intrauterine (fetal) development and will not undergo further mitotic division during post natal life
    • ex- nerve cells, cardiac cells (myocytes) and to some extent the skeletal muscle cells.
  85. Somatic cells are in:
  86. Germ cells are in:
  87. What is the cell cycle composed of
    • Duplication of genetic component (mitosis) 
    • Cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis)
  88. Cell cycle process- 3 phases
    • Interphase
    • Mitosis
    • Citokinesis
  89. Phase between cell division
  90. Cell engages in growth, metabolism, and production of substances required for division 
    (No chromosomal replication)
    G1 phase
  91. Synthesis and replicayion of new DNA and associated proteins
    S phase
  92. Cell engages in growth, metabolism, and production of substances required for division
    -No chromosomal replication-
  93. Nuclear Division
  94. 4 phases of Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  95. Prophase
    • The longest phase
    • Condensation of chromatin fibers becomes the chromosomes.
    • The nucleoli disappears and the nuclear enveope break down.
    • The mitotic spindle is formed developing three types of microtubules
    • The mitotic spindle attaches to the chromosomes and distributes them to opposite poles
  96. 3 types of microtubules formed by the mitotic spindle
    • Nonkinetochore Microtubules
    • Kinetochore Microtubules
    • Aester Microtubules
  97. The centromeres line up in exact center of mitotic spindle (equatoral plane region)
  98. Anaphase
    • The splitting and separation of centromeres and movement of sister chromatids toward opposite poles.
    • The shortest phase
  99. Begins when chromosomal movement stops. The chromosomes begin to uncoil and two nuclear envelopes forms and the mitotic spindle breaks up.
  100. Cytoplasmic division between the two daughter cells
  101. Karyotyping
    • 1. Ability to stimulate cells into division by using mitogens (PHA)
    • 2. Chemical agents that are toxic for mitotic spindle arresting cell division during mitosis
    • 3. Use of hypotonic solutions
    • 4. In vitro culture of human cells
    • 5. Availability of different staining techniques
  102. Which cells may be used for karyotyping?
    Any cells that may be promoted into division can be used.
  103. The most common cells or tissues used for karyotuping
    • 1. Amniocytes (12-16 weeks in pregnancy)
    • 2. Chorionic villi (earlier in pregnancy, when the mom hase undergone more then 2 spontaneous abortions)
    • 3. Bone Marrow
    • 4. Special studies for studying malignant processes
  104. Humans
    • Have 46 chromosomes
    • 22 Autosome (pairs) - alike in both sexes
    • 1 pair of sex chromosomes
    • XX = female
    • XY= male
  105. Composed of 2 chromatids joined by a centromere or central are of condensation
    P= short arm
    Q = long arm
  106. How are human chromosomes identified
    • By their characteristics in 8 groups A-H
    • Sorted by:
    • Size
    • Location of centromere
    • Presence of satelites
  107. When a chromosome is stained, a specific set of band patterns is observed
    • G Banding (Giesma)
    • Q Banding (Quinacrine) florescence microscopy needed
    • C Banding (centromere)
    • NOR (nuclear organizing region)
    • R banding (reverse banding pattern)
  108. Organized procedure for matching and alining the identical chromosome pairs.
    It will always state the chromosomal complement and sex.
  109. Clinical application of Karyotyping
    • Chromosomal complement
    • Detect structural abnormalities of a chromosome
    • Detect numerical variation associated with specific syndromes which allows for early (inutero) diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.
  110. The electrochemical difference between the intracellular and extracellular environment is maintained by what?
    The cell membrane
  111. A Resting Membrane Potential is formed by what?
    The inside surface is relatively negative charged than the extracellular space producing a voltege difference or...

    membrane potential/ diffusion potential
  112. Main Cations in membrane
    • Intracellular- Potassium
    • Extracellular- Sodium
  113. Main Anions in membrane
    Extracellular- Chloride
  114. Factors contributing in the production of a resting membrane potential (3)
    • 1- Unequal distribution of ions across the membrane
    • 2- Relative membrane permeability for Na+, K+, and Cl-
    • 3. Permeability is 50-100x greater for K+ than for Na+
  115. The 2 types of electrical signals that muscle and neurons use
    • 1- Graded potentials (for short distance communication)
    • 2- Action potentials
  116. Electrical signals produced by neurons and muscles rely on these 4 types of ion channels
    • Leakage channels
    • Voltage-gated channels
    • Ligand-gated channels
    • Mechanically gated channels
  117. These gates are randomly opened or closed to maintain the electrochemical difference (diffusion potential)
    eg- cell membrane allows leakage of K+ to maintain electrochemical difference
    Leakage gated channels
  118. Open in response to direct change in membrane channels. Gives neurons and muscle fibers the property of excitability (ability to respond to certain stimuli producing impulses)
    Voltage gated channels
  119. Work in responce to specific chemical stimulii changing membrane permeability
    Ligand gated channels
  120. 2 types of ligand gated channels
    • 1- Direct (Acetylcholine) - Opens channels for Na+, K+, and Ca++
    • 2- Indirect - Work via membrane protein (protein G) as second messenger system
  121. Work in response of vibration, pressure (sound), stretching (pacinian corpuscle), and light (photoreceptors)
    Mechanically gated channels
  122. When a stimulus occurs in ligand gated or mechanically gated channels, it produces a small deviation from the membrane potential producing:
    • Hyperpolarization
    • Depolarization
    • -Occurs in a localized region of the membrane, travels for a short distance, and dies out.
  123. Action Potential
    Electrical signal produced in excitable cells under proper stimulation leading to a sequence of rapidly occuring events that results in:
    Depolarization and Repolarization
  124. Decrease and eventual reversal of membrane potential. Requires a stimuli to depolarize the resting potential to a critical value (threshold)
    -depends on Na+ channels (open)
    going up the curve
  125. Restauration of resting state
    Depends on K+ channels which do not exhibit an inhibitory state
    -Na+ channels close, K+ channels open- down the curve
  126. The time during which an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential.
    Refractory period
  127. Time in which a second action potential can be initiated by a  superthreshold stimulus. Coincides with a period of voltage gated K+ channel open after inactivated Na+ channels have returned to resting state
    Relative Refractory Period
  128. Concincides with the period of Na+ channels activation and inactivation
    Absolute refractory period
  129. Propagation of Action Potential
    • Electrical impulse travel dependent on positive feedback.
    • Since the membrane is refractory behind the leading edge of the Action Potential, it only moves in one direction.
    • Follows the All or none principle
  130. What is directly related to the diameter of the fiber and the presence or absence of myelin?
    Speed of impulse
  131. Myelinated large diameter fibers conducting the fastest impulses
    A fibers
  132. Small myelinated fibers
    B fibers
  133. Small unmyelinated fibers
    C fibers
  134. Occurs in muscle fibers and unmylinated axons
    Continuous conduction
  135. Occurs in myelinated fibers, is more energy efficient, and travel time is faster
    Saltatory conduction
  136. The transference of the signal or synapses in human cells occurs in 2 different forms:
    • Electrical synapses
    • Chemical synapses
  137. Electrical synapse
    Occur through gap junctions "connexons"

    Allows for faster communication and synchronization
  138. Chemical synapses (2 things)
    • 1- One way transmission
    • 2- Promotes a response in post-synaptic target
  139. Which neurotransmitters are Inhibitory
    Gaba and Serotonine
  140. Which neurotransmitters are Excitatory
    • Acetylcholine (cholinergic neurons)
    • Glutamate
    • Norepinepherine (adrenergic neurons)
  141. Graded potential characteristics
    • Amplitude- Variable sizes, dependent on strength to start it
    • Duration- Longer
    • Channels- different types
    • Location- mainly in dendrites
    • Propogation- Localized
    • Refractory Period- none
  142. Action potential characteristics
    • Amplitude- same size
    • Duration- Quicker
    • Channels- Voltage gated ion
    • Location- arise at triggered zone propagating along the axon.
    • Refractory period- Present
  143. Body is upright
    Anatomical Position
  144. Body is laying face down
    Prone position
  145. Body is lying face up
    Supine position
  146. Skull and face
  147. Supports the head and attaches to trunk
  148. Chest, abdomen, and pelvis
  149. Attaches to trunk (shoulder, armpit, and arm)
    Upper limbs
  150. Attaches to trunk (buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot)
    Lower limbs
  151. Nearer or at the Front of the body
    Anterior/ ventral / frontal
  152. Nearer or at the Back of the body
    Posterior/ Dorsal
  153. Toward the head
  154. Away from the head
  155. Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk
  156. Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk
  157. Farther from the midline
  158. Nearer to the midline
  159. Imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body parts
    Planes and Sections
  160. A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides
    Sagittal plane
  161. Divides the body into equal right and left sides
  162. Divides the body into unequal right and left sides
    Parasagittal plane
  163. Divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions.
    Frontal or Coronal plane
  164. Divides the body or an orgain into superior and inferior portions.
    • Transverse plane
    • Also, cross sectional or horizontal plane
  165. Passes through the body or an organ at an angle
    -Between transverse and sagittal or between transverse and frontal
    Oblique plane
  166. Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support the internal organs
    Body cavities
  167. Formed by the cranial bones
    Protects the brain
    Cranial cavity
  168. Formed by bones of vertebral column
    Contains the spinal cord
    Vertebral cord
  169. Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and vetebral canal.
  170. Thoracic Cavity is formed by:
    • Ribs
    • Muscles of the chest
    • Sternum (brestbone)
    • Vertebral column (thoracic portion)
  171. 2 cavities within the thoracic cavity
    Pericardial Cavity
  172. Extends from the diaphragm to the groin
    Abdominopelvic cavity
  173. Abdominal cavity
    Stomach, Spleen, Liver, Gallbladder, Small and Large Intestine
  174. Pelvic Cavity
    Urinary Bladder, Inernal organs of reproductive system, and portions of the large intestine.
  175. Nine Abdominopelvic Regions
    • R & L Hypochondriac
    • Epigastric and Hypogastric
    • Right and Left Lumbar
    • Right and Left Inguinal
    • Umbilical
  176. Vertical and horizontal likes that pass through the umbilicus
    • Quadrants
    • RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
  177. Other Cavities
    • Oral cavity
    • Nasal cavity
    • Orbital cavities
    • Middle ear cavities
    • Synovial cavities
  178. An organized aggregation of cells that function in a collective manner
  179. Gap Junctions
    • Sites that mediate electric coupling between cells. Also permit the prederential passage of small molecules from cell to cell.
    • Intercellular channels that permit the free passage between the cells of ions and small molecules.
    • They are cylinders constructed form the 6 copies of transmembrane proteins called connexins.
    • Permit changes in membrane potential to pass from cell to cell.
    • Ex- heartbeat, electrical synapses in
    • the brain
  180. 4 tissue types
    • Epithelium
    • Connective Tissue
    • Muscular Tissue
    • Nervous Tissue
  181. A Pas positive + recation means:
    The presence of polysaccharides
  182. Description of Pseudostratified epithelia
    • all cells rest on the basement membrane,
    • only some cells reach the free surface,
    • Actually, a simple epithelium. (stratisfied should have two or more layers)
    • Has limited Distrubtion in the body
    • Reflects the role of stem cells in maintaining a stable population of cells to balance cell turnover.
    • ex- Pseudostratisfied columnar
    • epithelium of the trachea
  183. Epithelia involved in secretion and/or absorbtion are typically what type:
    Simple or Pseudostratisfied
  184. What are Goblet cells?
    • Single cells in the epithelium that have secretory function. They secrete a mucous substance.
    • Are unicellular glands.
  185. What are the characteristics of a Secretory Cell
    • Have a well developed ER
    • A Golgi apparatus to fulfill their function
    • Numerous mitochondria
    • Vesicles and granules
    • Multiple join together to form multicellular glands
    • Most in humans are cuboidal columnar

    • Ex- cells of epithelium of GI tract that
    • secrete digestive enzymes and gastric acid, or Meibomian glands in the eyelid
    • that secrete sebum to lubricate and protect the eye.
  186. 3 ways that exocrine glands release their products
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  187. Merocrine
    • Cells that secrete products via this method form membrane-bound secretory vesicles internal to the cell.
    • These are moved to the apical surface where the vesicles coalesce with the membrane on the apical surface to release the product.
    • Most common- Most glands release their products this way.
  188. Apocrine Glands
    • In glands that release the product via this method, the apical portions of cells are pinched off and lost during the secretory process.
    • This results in a secretory product that contains a variety of molecular components including those of the membrane.
    • Mammary Glands release their products in this manner.
  189. Holocrine Glands
    • The type of secretory release that involves cell death.
    • The secretory cells is released and as it breaks apart, the contents of the cell become the secretory product.
    • This mode of secretion results in the most complex secretory product.
    • Some sweat glands in the axillae, pubic areas, and areoli of breasts use this method.
    • Sebaceous glands are also this type
  190. Paracrine Glands
    • Secretory cells of endocrine glands that can release their substance into the adjacent cells or surrounding tissue rather than into the bloodstream.
    • Function is _____ signaling
    • Ex- growth factors, clotting factors.
    • Overproduction of some of these growth factors have been linked to the development of cancer.
  191. Autocrine glands
    • Secretory cells that also release their hormones into the surrounding cells in the tissue.
    • The chemical agent, or hormone, affects cells of the same type.
    • The function is _________ signaling
  192. A form of signaling in which a cell secreated a hormone (or chemical messenger) that binds to autocrine receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
    Autocrine Signaling

    • Examples- T cell lymphocytes
    • Cytokine interleukin 1- in monocytes
  193. What are Macula Adherens
    A focal junction- a spot in the cell membrane where adhesion occurs.
  194. What are Zonula Adherens?
    • A Band junction- the area of adhesion that surrounds cell membanes.
    • Usually found adjacent to zonla occlusions
    • Found in the intercellular junctions of the RPE
    • Between the Muller cells of the Retina
    • At the Myoid portion of the photoreceptors of the retina forming the outer limiting membrane of the retina.
  195. Differences in Macula and Zona Occludens
    • Both are associated with a keratin-based cytoskeleton.
    • Macula possess specific transmembane receptors of the integrin family that link the cell to the extracellular matrix on the outside of the cell and the microfilament system on the inside.
    • Zonula has members of a family of calcium ion-dependent cell adhesion molecules, called Ca-adherens, that mediate attachment between cells at junctions.
  196. What the Macula and Zonula Occludens do:
    • They join cells together or to the extracellular matrix.
    • Transduce signals into and out of the cell, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation.
    • Some components can shuttle to and from the nucleus where they are thought to play a role in regulating gene
    • expression.
  197. What are Desmosomes
    • Same as macula adherens but:
    • There is a “cellular bridge”
    • Present an electron-dense intercellular material parallel to the cell membrane, forming a line.
    • Present numerous tonofilaments in the cytoplasm oriented at right angle with respect to the cell junction
    • Found in the epidermis, corneal epithelium, optic cup epthelium, and the CNS.
  198. What are Hemidesmosomes
    • Half desmosomes
    • A special type of desmosomes found at the base of epithelial cells
    • Fasten the epithelium to the basement membrane
  199. How are fibers organized in the dense regular connective tissue? (tendons)
    The fibers are all aligned in a single direction, conferring tensile strength primarily in that direction.
  200. Function of Mast cells?
    Secretory alarm cells. Upon the slightest disturbance, they release chemical signals which diffuse through the surrounding ground substance and trigger the process of inflammation.
  201. What is the secretion of the Osteoblasts?
    deposit a matrix of Type-1 collegen and also release calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions that combine within the collagenous matrix into crystalline mineral, known as bone mineral.
  202. What are Osteoclasts?
    macrophage relatives which dissolve bone matrix.
  203. What are the Haversian canals
    • the central canal where the concentric lamellae (the osteon’s concentric layers of mineralized matrix) are deposited.
    • (compact bone has these)
  204. What are Volkmann canals?
    Known as perforating holes, are microscopic structures found in compact bone. They run within the osteons perpendicular to the Haversian canals, interconnecting the latter with each other and the periosteum. They usually run at obtuse angles to the Haversian canals and contain anastomosing vessels between Haversian capillaries. They also carry small arteries throughout the bone. 
  205. Direct Function of bone tissue
    • Support for muscles, organs, and soft tissue
    • Leaverage and movement
    • Protection of vital organs
    • Calcium phosphate storage
  206. Indirect Function of Bone tissue
    Hemopoiesis- formation of blood cells by the bone marrow interspersed within the spongy bone.

    Main blood production is in the spleen and liver
  207. What is Epithelioid tissue? Examples
    • They are interstincial cells of leydig of the testis  
    • Examples: luteal cells of the ovary, parenchyma of adrenal glands, epithlioreticular cells of thymus
  208. The Lacrimal gland
    • Composed of tubuloacinar gland
    • Is a combination gland
  209. Classification of the Sclera connective tissue?
    Dense collagenous tissue
  210. Classificarion of the Cornea connective tissue
    Dense fibrous connective tissue
  211. Classification of Corneal epithelium
    non-keratinized stratified squamous
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