Biology Exam #1

  1. What is the heirarchy of life?
    • 1. atomic level
    • 2. molecular
    • 3. organelle
    • 4. cellular
    • 5. tissue
    • 6. organ
    • 7.organism
  2. Covalent Bond
    Two atoms share electrons
  3. Atomic Mass
    protons + neutrons 
  4. Finding # of Neutrons
    Atomic Mass - Atomic # 
  5. Isotopes
    Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons 

    • Carbon (12)
    • Carbon (13)
  6. Chemical Bond
    - Determined by number of valence electrons (octet rule)
  7. Polar Covalent Bonds
    Electronegative atoms bond with higher electonegative bond
  8. Ionic Bond
    • -Oppositely charged atoms are attracted 
    • - Weaker 
    • -Form salts
  9. Hydrogen Bonds
    -Oppositely charged atoms are attracted
  10. Van der Wahl's Interactions
    Molecules with non-polar covalent bonds can have positive and negative bonds
  11. Linear Molecule
    Molecule with two atoms
  12. Cohesion
    The attraction between two water molecules
  13. Adhesion
    Water is attracted to other compounds
  14. Solutions/Aqueous Solutions
    Mixture of solutes dissolved in solvent

    If solvent is water
  15. Hydrophilic
    Substance drawn to water
  16. Hydrophobic
    Major components of cell repellant to water
  17. Prokaryotic Cells
    • No nucleus or organelles
    • Does not interact with bacteria
  18. Eukaryotic Cells
    • Variety of organelles enclosed in membranes
    • Nucleus houses DNA
  19. Radioisotopes
    When isotope is unstable, it decays, emits radiation and becomes a radioisotope
  20. Orbital Hybrization
    When bonding, valence shell is rearranged
  21. Buffers
    Resist changes to the pH of a solution when H+ or OH- is added 
  22. Hydrocarbons
    Organic molecules that consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms
  23. Isomers
    Compounds with same molecular formula but different structures and chemical properties
  24. Geometric Isomers
    Compounds with covalent bonds in their spatial arrangment around double carbon bond
  25. Enantiomers
    Molecules that are mirror images of each other 
  26. Hydroxyl Group (-OH)
    • Hydrogen atom forms a polar covalent bond to carbon skeleton
    • Improve solubility
    • Alcohols
  27. Carbonyl Group (C=O)
    • Oxygen atom joined to carbon skeleton by double bonds
    • If the group is on the end of skeleton, compound is an aldehyde
    • Otherwise the compound is a ketone
  28. Carboxyl Group (-COOH)
    Carbon atom with a double bond with and oxygen atom and a single bond to a hydroxly group 
  29. Amino Group (-NH2)
    • NItrogen atom attatched to two hydrogen atoms and carbon skeleton
    • Organic compounds are amines
  30. Sulfhydryl Group (-SH) 
    • Sulfur atom bonded to hydrogen atom and to backbone
    • Resembles hydroxyl group 
    • Organic molecules are thiolis 
  31. Phosphate Group 
    Phosphorous bound to four oxygen atoms- three with single bonds and one with a double bond
  32. Condensation Reaction
    Dehydration Reaction
    • Adding water
    • Removing water
  33. Hydrolosis
    Breaking apart monomers; reacts with water
  34. Carbohydrates
    Stores energy and provides support
  35. Monosaccharides
    • simple sugars containing 3-7 carbons
    • Carbohydrate
  36. Disaccharides
    • Sugars composed of two monosaccarides linked by dehydration synthesis
    • Carbohydrate
  37. Polysaccharides
    Complex carbohydrates made of hundreds of monomers linked by dehydration synthesis
  38. Lipids
    • do not dissolve
    • fats
  39. Triglycerides
    • composed of glycerol linked to three fatty acid chains by dehydration synthesis
    • cushions organs as insulation and long term energy storage
    • lipid
  40. Trans Fats
    • cooking oils
    • solid at room temperature
    • lipid
  41. Phospholipids
    • lipid bonded to a phosphate group
    • major component to cell membrane
  42. Sterols
    • lipid
    • has four interconnected carbon rings
  43. Proteins
    Monomers are amino acids
  44. Dipeptide 


    Peptide Bond
    two amino acids combined

    longer chain of amino acids

    covalent carbon to nitrogen bond linking amino acids
  45. Protein Primary Structure
    amino acid sequence of polypeptide chain
  46. Protein Secondary Structure
    coiling hydrogen bonds
  47. Protein Tertiary Structure 
    shape created by interaction between R groups
  48. Protein Quaternary Structure
    interactions between two or more polypeptides
  49. DNA
    • 5-carbon sugar is deoxyribose
    • nitrogenous bases: A, G, C, and T
    • double stranded held by hydrogen bonds
  50. RNA
    • 5-carbon sugar is ribose
    • nitrogenous bases: A G C U
    • single stranded 
  51. ATP
    • adenine, ribose, and three phosphates
    • energy molecule of all cells
  52. Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) 
    transfers energy by transfering a phosphate group
  53. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)
    single phosphate is part of a ring connection two regions of ribose
Card Set
Biology Exam #1