Bilayer consists of phospholipids (75%), cholesterol (20%), and glycolipids(5%)
Microvilli CiliaFlagellahairlike processes that in many cases are sensory in function (inner ear – balance and retina-light-absorbing part of thereceptor cell). Motile cilia are found in the respiratory tract and in the uterine tubes.extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell’s surface area “brush border”. Ex. Cells lining small intestinea whiplike structure much longer than a cilium and is only found in humans as the tail of sperm cell.
- Microvilli- brush border
- Cilia- hairlike
- Flagella- whiplike
Filtration -DiffusionOsmosis-–the net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of low concentration down a concentration gradient.3. the diffusion of water downits concentration gradient from a region of low concentration of solutes to a high concentration of solutes. It occurs through cellophane, dialysis membranes, and cell membranes. Aquaporins –channel proteins specialized for the passage of water. The passage of water and solutes through a membrane byhydrostatic pressure. Pressuregradient pushes solute-containing fluid from a higher-pressure area to alower-pressure area. (Kidneys)
- Filtration- Fluid moves- high pressure to low pressure Diffusion- particles move
- Osmosis- water- low concentration to high concentration
Separates intracellular fluids from extracellular
Membrane Permeability – _____ molecules
will diffuse readily and others need a transport protein ______
Which is polar and non polar
the pressure produced by the solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane. The higher the solute
concentration, the greater its osmotic pressure.
the ability of a solution to
affect the fluid volume and pressure of a cell is called _____
1 solutions with the same solute concentration as that of the cytosol
2 solutions having greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol
3 solutions having lesser solute concentration than that of the cytosol
Isotonic – solutions with the same solute concentration as that of the cytosol
Hypertonic –solutions having greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol
Hypotonic – solutions having lesser solute concentration than that of the cytosol
Antiport system –
two substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions (countertransport) – Na/K ion pump.
two substances are moved across a membrane in the same direction(cotransport)
carries only one solute at a time.
Uniport – carries only one solute at a time.
Symport system – two substances are moved across a membrane in the same direction(cotransport)
- Antiport system – two substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions
- (countertransport) – Na/K ion pump.
transport of a solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient. Passive process –Ex. Glucose
carrier-mediated transport of a solute through a
membrane up its concentration gradient using energy provided by ATP.
Sodium-Potassium Ion Pump –
maintains levels of Na (major extracellular ion) andK(major intracellular ion) by pumping 3 Na out of the cell and bringing 2 Kinto the cell. **Half of the caloriesyou consume each day are used for this process alone!
material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes
metabolic machinery of the cell
chemical substances such as glycosomes, glycogen
granules, and pigment
- Mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and Golgi complex
- centrosome, centrioles, basal
bodies, and ribosomes
Membranous - Mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and Golgi complex
Nonmembranous - centrosome, centrioles, basal bodies, and ribosomes
the largest organelle
and usually the only one visible under the light microscope
Selectively permeable double membrane barrier
fine threadlike matter composed of DNA and
Dark-staining spherical bodies within the
nucleus where ribosomes are produced.
Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing
Continuous with the nuclear membrane
Two varieties – rough ER and smooth ER
studded with ribosomes
Responsible for the synthesis of integral membrane
proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes
in a looping network
Catalyzes the following reactions in various organs of
the bodyIn the liver – lipid and cholesterol metabolism, breakdown of glycogen
and, along with the kidneys, detoxification of drugs
In the testes – synthesis of steroid-based hormones
In the intestinal cells – absorption, synthesis, and
transport of fats
In skeletal and cardiac muscle – storage and release
containing protein and rRNA
Site of protein
____ ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins
_______ ______ ribosomes synthesize proteins to be incorporated into membranes
Stacked and flattened membranous sacs
Functions in modification, concentration, and packaging of proteins
from the ER fuse to the Golgi apparatus
Proteins then pass through the Golgi apparatus and carbohydrates are added to some and then the
substances are packaged into secretory vesicles.
Substances can be stored or released from the golgi
____ are produced in the golgi
- Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes
They hydrolyze proteins, nucleic acids, complex carbohydrates, phospholipids, and other substrates.
- At least 50 lysosomal enzymes have been identified.
membranous sacs that resemble lysosomes, but contain oxidases and catalases that detoxifies harmful or
toxic substances. Abundant in liver and kidney cells.
Decompose fatty acids into 2 carbon acetyl groups to be used by the mitochondria to produce ATP.
– “Powerhouse” of the cell Double membrane
structure with shelflike cristae
Provide most of the cell’s ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
Contain their own DNA and RNA
Two assemblies of microtubules contained within a centrosome.
- Centrioles play a
- part in cell division and form the anchoring structure for Cilia and flagella.
The “skeleton” of the cell
Dynamic, elaborate series of rods running through the cytosol
Consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
Dynamic strands of the protein actin
Attached to the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
Braces and strengthens the cell surface – membrane
Attach to CAMs and function in endocytosis and exocytosis
Tough, insoluble protein fibers with high tensile strength
Resist pulling forces on the cell
Line the inside of the nuclear envelope and form a cage that encloses the nucleus
Dynamic, hollow tubes made of the spherical protein tubulin
Determine the overall shape of the cell and distribution of organelles
Allow organelles to move from place to place within the cell