1. Digestion?
    Process of breaking down foods to a form the body can use
  2. Absorption?
    Uptake of nutrients to the blood or lymph.
  3. Mucosa
    Innermost layer of the GI tract, lumen
  4. Submucosa
    Second inner most layer of GI tract, has blood vessels carrying nutrients
  5. Muscle (GI tract)
    Third layer in GI tract, moves food forward
  6. Serosa
    Outermost layer in GI tract, protects the tract
  7. Lower Espoghagial Spincter
    prevents backflow of stomach to espoghagus 
  8. Pyloric spincter
    controls flow of stomach acid into small intestine
  9. Spincter of Oddi
    Controls flow of bile from common bile duct into small intestine
  10. Ileocecal spincter
    Prevents contents in large intestine from re entering small intestine
  11. Anal Spincter
    Prevents defecation until person chooses to
  12. Peristalsis
    Contractions to move matter along the tract
  13. Saliva
    Produced in the mouth, helps swallow, lubrication to mouth
  14. Mucus
    Originates in mouth, stomach, small, large intestine. Helps protect GI tract and lubricates food.
  15. Enzymes ex Amylase and Lipase
    Happen in mouth, stomach, small intestine, pancreas. Help digest carbs, fats and proteins.
  16. Acid ex HCl
    introduced in the stomach, helps digest proteins and destroys microorganisms, and helps digest minerals. 
  17. Bile
    Made in liver, stored in gall bladder, digests fat.
  18. Bicarbonate
    In the pancreas and small intestine, helps eliminate stomach acid for the small intestine
  19. Hormones (digestion secretions)
    Stomach and small intestine, helps digest and absorb nutrients
  20. Saliva is composed of three things...
    • lysozomes: break down bacteria
    • mucus: lubricates and holds bolus together
    • Amylase: breaks down starch
  21. Taste senses
    • sour
    • sweet
    • bitter
    • umami
    • salty
    • olfactory (smell)
  22. Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
    slows release of chyme into small intestine and regulates pyloric spincter
  23. What do Parietal Cells secrete into stomach?
    Hydrochloric Acid
  24. What do chief cells secrete into stomach?
    Gastic lipase and pepsinogen
  25. What does Gastrin Do?
    Hormone that controls the release of HCl and pepsinogen, releases when we think about food
  26. What does Mucus secrete into stomach?
    Mucus protects stomach from digesting itself
  27. What does HCl do?
    • inactivates protein
    • destroys bacteria and virus
    • converts pepsinogen into pepsin
    • absorbs minerals
  28. What does pepsinogen do?
    Helps digest proteins (enzyme)
  29. pH Scales examples
    • Acids: lemon juice, vinegar, HCl, urine
    • neutral: pure tears
    • basic: NaOH, oven cleaner, Pancreatic juices
  30. What is stomach acid stimulated by?
    • Gastrin, a hormone
    • stomach distention
    • histamine, a regulator
    • thoughts of food
    • food itself
  31. What does the liver do?
    Produces bile, circulates and recycles bile
  32. What does gall bladder do?
    Stores bile
  33. What does Pancreas do?
    Produces bicarbonate, lipases, amylase
  34. What do digestive enzymes do?
    • speed up chemical reactions
    • each has a specific function
    • controlled by hormones and nerves
    • released as needed
  35. Order of digestion in the small intestine
    • 1. enzymes secreted from pancreas
    • 2. sugar break down from sacchrides to mono, microvilli brush the border
    • 3. bile from the gall bladder, bicarbonate ions and enzymes from pancreas enter
    • 4. segmentation mixes food with juices
    • 5. 3-10 hrs later, food moves out. (95% digested)
  36. What are the hormones of the GI Tract?
    • gastrin
    • CCK
    • GIP
    • secretin
  37. What are the types of absorption in the small intestine?
    • Passive: fat, no energy, high to low conc, permeable wall
    • Facilitated: carrier brings nutrients to cell, no energy, vitamins, high to low
    • Active: ATP, energy required, glucose
    • Endocytosis: phagocytosis
  38. What do beneficial bacteria do in large intestine?
    control pathogens, synthesize vitamin K and biotin, aid in lactose digestion and fermentation
Card Set
for studying 1112 chapter 4 on human digestion