Real exam 1

  1. All living things must have what characteristics?
    • Order
    • Metabolism
    • Motility
    • Responsiveness
    • Reproduction
    • Development
    • Heredity
    • Evolution
    • Adapt
  2. What is the orfer of the Biological Hiearchy? (smallest to largest)
    • Organelle
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ systems
    • Organism
  3. What is an organelle?
    A structurewithin a cell that performs a special function.
  4. What is a cell?
    A cell is the simplest entity that has the properties of life.
  5. What is a Tissue?
    A group of similar cells that carry out a function.
  6. What is a Organ?
    A structure consiting of tissues.
  7. what about a organ system?
    that is two or more organs, a group of body parts that carry out functions.
  8. Am I an organism?
    An organism is an individual that can independly carry out life.
  9. What is a population?
    Groups of similar individuals. (mice)
  10. Community???
    Is groups of all different species and organisms living in a particular area.
  11. ecosystem
    Communities and their physical enviorments
  12. Biomes
    A large region defined by distinctive characteristics.
  13. Biosphere
    All ecosytems on the earth
  14. Ecology
    Studies the relationship between living organisms and their enviorments.
  15. what can Energy be used for?
    • Can be used to consue plants or animals
    • for Photosythesis
    • To convert sunlight to chemical energy & surgars
    • also to grow and develop.
  16. Motility is?
    Self- Propelled Movement
  17. What do Single-Celled organisms do?
    They produce 2 genetically identical cells (asexual)
  18. What do Multi-celler organisms do?
    • They have many ways....
    • Sex
    • Eggs, Sperms...
    • (SEXUAL)
  19. What is DNA real name?

  20. WHAT IS A GENE? not Jeans lol
    The basic unit of inheritance that transmits heredity info to a mom to a kid.

    It is the part of the DNA molecule in a chromosome that encodes a RNA!
  21. What are the 4 types of molecules?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  22. What is heredity?
    Factors that control an organisms form & function. (genes)
  23. What is evolution?
    A change or variation in the genes of a population over time.
  24. What is the Genus?
    • It always comes 1st then the species name!
    • The genus contains several related & similar species!
  25. What is the order of the Classification Scheme? (largest to smallest)
    • Domains (largest)
    • Kingdoms
    • Phyla (divisons)
    • Classes
    • Orders
    • Families
    • Genera
    • Species (smallest)
  26. What are the 3 domains?
    • Bacteria
    • Archea
    • Eukarya
  27. What does the Bacteria domain contain?
    It contains Prokaryotic Species (bacteria)
  28. What does the Domain Archaea contain?
    It contains Prokaryotic species that inhabit harsh enviorments.
  29. What does the Domain Eukarya contain?
    • It contains larger more complex eukaryotic cells.
    • Which contains the 4 kingdoms 
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
    • Fungi
    • Protista
  30. What are the 4 kingdoms?
    • The 4 kingdoms are:
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
    • Fungi
    • Protista
  31. Charles Darwin who?
    He created the " on the orgin of species" book in 1859
  32. What arises from natural selection?
  33. What are the steps in the scientifc Method?
    • Identify the problem
    • Hypothesis
    • Make prediction
    • Test
    • Conclusion
  34. What roles do Bacteria and Archea play?
    • Major enviormental role
    • Recycle Carbon and nitrogen
    • They consume dead and decaying matter, pesticides and pollutants
    • Bioremediatiopn (clean up oil spills)
  35. Prokaryotes have a positive and negative impact such as...
    • Causes diseases
    • Bacteria inhabitant of human gut, produce vitamin K, B12,  riboflavin,biotin.
    • Help in digestion of cellouse
    • help in production of chemical compounds (butanol, frutose and lysine)
    • Help in production of cheese yogurt and soy sauce
  36. Prokaryotes cell structure is?
    • Simple, lacks a nuclear envelope and organelles
    • loose circular dna
    • cell wall is made up of peptidoglycans

    Archaea do not contain true peptiodoglycans
  37. What are peptidoglycans?
    They are sugar protein complexces that make up a cell wall.
  38. Gram positive (purple)
    Has a thick Peptidoglycan layer

    Penicillin type antibiotics kill gram +
  39. Gram negative (pink)
    Has a thin  peptidoglycan layer surrounded by lipoplysaccharides.

    Erythromycin-type antibiotics kill gram -
  40. What is Gram staining?
    • A process to determine two diffrent types of prokaryotes.
    • This identification process helps in the selection of antibiotics.
  41. What are the 3 forms of Prokarotes?
    • Coccus (cocci) = Spheres
    • Bacillus (bacilli) = Rods
    • Spirilla = spirals 
    • Vibrios = comma shaped rods
  42. Heterotophs prokarotes
    Obtain organic nutrients from the envioroment.
  43. Saprobes Prokaryotes
    • Live off dead or dying organisms
    • (decomposers)
  44. Symbionts prokaryotes
    • Live in other organisms
    • some are parasites and can harm their host, some are neutral
    • E. coli
  45. Autotrophs Prokaryoytes
    Can make their own nutrition from inorganic sources.
  46. Photoautotrophs prokaryotes
    • Use light sources to make energy
    • Which are cyanobacteria - blue green alge that are oxygen- generating and nitrogen fixing also phtosynthetic.
  47. Chemoautrophs Prokaryotes
    • Use chemicals to make energy
    • Sulfur bacteria and methane bacteria
  48. How do prokaryotes reproduce?
    Binary fission and endospores
  49. What is Binary Fission?
    • Divide in half 
    • Fast and efficent
    • Reproduction is limited by food, oxygen, and other resource avaliabilty
    • Ecoli divides every 20 mins
  50. Endospores
    • Can survive a variety of conditions
    • Develop under enviormental strees
  51. What is conjugation?
    Direct exchange of Dna through a strand of cytoplasm that bridges two cells.
  52. What is transduction?
    Transfer of genes from one bacteria to another via a virus
  53. What is transformation?
    Transfer of genes by the uptake of dna directly from meduim.
  54. What is Genetic recombination?
    It can give prokaryotes means to survive under changing enviorments. Adaption.
  55. What is the Domain Archea?
    • Most are Anaerobes
    • Extremphiles
    • Methanogens
  56. What are Extremophiles?
    • They can live in hostile enviorments like:
    • near boiling water
    • Salty lakes
    • highly acidic or alkaline water and soil
  57. What are methanogens?
    • They produce methane gas
    • and live in a cow digestive tract
  58. Archea has 3 Main kingdoms! what are they?
    • Koarcheota
    • Crenarchaeota
    • Euryarchaeota
  59. Koarcheota archea
    live organism is yet to be found, only dna has been found
  60. Crenarcheota Archea
    Thermophiles- use sulfur as electron aceptor in their energy metabolism.
  61. Euryacheaeota archea
    • methane producers
    • Halophiles (salt loving)
  62. The bacteria Domain has how many kingdoms?
  63. primitive bacteria is...
    • are species that are close to very early life forms.
    • Aquifex
    • Thermtoga
    • Deinococcus
  64. Aquifex bacteria
    Extremophiles- they survive in the most extreme conditions ....duh!
  65. thermotoga bacteria
    live in boiling conditions
  66. Deinococcus
    resistant to irridation
  67. gram positive bacteria
    • cause many infections.
    • Actinomycetes
    • mycoplasmas
    • bacillus thuringiensis
  68. Actinomycetes
    produce more than 500 antibiotics
  69. mycoplasmas
    lack cell walls, walking pneumonia
  70. bacillus thuringiensis
    may help control malaria in the future
  71. spirochetes
    • lyme disease
    • syphilis
  72. chlamydia
    most common std in america
  73. cyanobacteria
    • blue green algea
    • provides oxygen and nitrogen and carbon to the enviorment
  74. proteobacteria
    • purple bacteria- gave rise to mitochodria
    • e coli
    • Rickettsias- causes typhhus fever and rocky mountain fever
  75. viruses are...
    non living, a very tiny package of dna surrounded by a capsid. the capsid then attach to a cell wall or membrane, it enters the host cell or injects its dna, which interrupts cellular activity in host cell. then it reproduce in the host cell whic causes it to die or burst, which release viruses into the body.
  76. which medicene can kind of slow a virus?
  77. what are viriods?
    they are parasites living in plant cells which bind to rna in the host cells ribosomes, disrupts protien sythesis.
  78. What are prions?
    • infectious proteins which have no genetic makeup
    • Extremly rare, fatal dieses of central nervous system in cows lol
  79. what is a protist?
    • they are single celled eukaryotes, which carry the malaria parasite,
    • they do not 
    • develop embryos
    • have extensive cell differation
    • Are not animals, plants or fungi

    • ancient protistan
    • muticellular protistian
    • complex protistain
  80. malaria
    • oldest disease
    • greatest killer
    • major hosty of plasmodium falciparum
    • anopheles mosquito
  81. euglenoids
    euglena has a stigma which directs it toward light to carry out photosythesis
  82. parabasalians Trichonympha
    • live in the guts of termites which enables them to digest wood.
    • they have their own bacteria which can breakdown cellulose into sugar
Card Set
Real exam 1