1. What is external energy?
    • In the environment, the ultimate source
    • of energy is the sun and its vest nuclear reactions.
  2. What is internal energy?
    • When people eat plant and animals
    • foods, the stored energy changes into body fuels-glucose and fatty
    • acids- and cycles them into various other energy form to serve body
    • needs.
  3. BMR?
    Basal Metabolic Rate
  4. What is Basal Metabolic Rate(BMR) also
    RMR Resting Metabolic Rate
  5. What does Basal Metabolic Rate
    Sum of all internal working activitiesof the body at rest and is expressed in kilocalories per day about60-75% of total kcal. (RMR)
  6. What does energy out mean?
    The necessary activities to sustainlife, such as normal body functions, regulation of body temperature,and the processes of tissue growth and repair, use energy from foodand body reserves.
  7. What does energy in mean?
    The total energy balance within thebody depends on he energy intake in relation to the energy output.
  8. How does energy get balanced?
    It is determined on resting energyexpenditure, physical activity and the thermic effect of food is allsummed up together.
  9. What is the thermic effect of food?
    After eating, food stimulatesmetabolism and requires extra energy for digestion, absorption, andtransportation of nutrients to the cells. About 10% of kcal
  10. What is Physical Activity?
    Exercise about 15-30% of kcal.
  11. What are the three sources of stored
    Glycogen, Adipose Tissue, and MuscleMass
  12. When is Glycogen used up?
    First to get depleted in energy. Itsstored in the liver and muscles.
  13. When is adipose tissue used as energy?
    Its an additional energy resource itprovides more kcal than any other energy.
  14. When is muscle mass used as energy?
    Long periods of fasting or starvation.
  15. What is a calorie?
    A measure of heat. Kcal
  16. What is kilocalorie?
    1000 calories The calorie used innutrition science and the study of metabolism.
  17. What is basal energy expenditure? And
    The amount of energy in kcal needed bythe body for maintenance of life when a person is at total rest.(10-12hrs after eating, 12-18hrs afterphysical activities, and measured immediately after walking.
  18. A test to “indicate”(test) BMR?
    Thyroid Function test.
  19. What hormone regulates metabolism?
    Thyroid hormone
  20. Nutrient Density?
    A small food that has a highconcentrated material.
  21. What is Retinol?
    Vitamin A
  22. What are the functions of Vitamin A?
    Food sources?
    Vision, Tissue strength and immunity. Animal food, liver, egg yolk. (Retinol)
  23. What is Cholecalciferol?
    Vitamin D
  24. Functions of Vitamin D? Food Sources?
    Absorption of calcium and phosphorus.Bone mineralization. Synthesized in skin exposure to sun,fish oils
  25. Deficiency of Vitamin A?
  26. What is Tocopherol?
    Vitamin E
  27. Deficiency of Vitamin D?
    Rickets and osteoporosis.
  28. Functions of Vitamin E? Food Sources?
    Antioxidant and relation to seleniummetabolism. Vegetable oils, greens, nuts, seeds.
  29. Deficiency of Vitamin E?
    Hemolytic anemia
  30. Functions of Vitamin K? Food sources?

    Blood Clotting and Bone Development.Synthesis by intestinal bacteria; darkgreen, leafy vegetables.
  31. What are the four fat soluble vitamins?
    Vitamin KVitamin E (Tocopherol)Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)Vitamin A (Retinol)
  32. Functions Of Calcium? Food sources?
    Bone formation, blood clotting, muscleand nerve action.Milk, fish with bones, greenvegetables.
  33. Deficiency of calcium?
  34. Functions of Phosphorus? Food sources?
    Bone formation, energy metabolism,acid-base balancemilk, fish, eggs
  35. Functions of sodium? Food sources?
    Water balance, muscle action, nutrientabsorption.Table salt, sured meat, processedfoods.
  36. Deficiency of sodium?
    Fluid Shifts
  37. Functions of potassium? Food sources?
    Water balance, insulin release, bloodpressure Fruits, vegetables, whole grains
  38. Deficiency in potassium?
    Irregular heartbeat
  39. Functions of Chloride? Food sources?

    Digestion, respiration.Table salt
  40. Deficiency in chloride?
  41. Functions of Magnesium? Food sources?

    General metabolism, protein synthesis,BMRnuts, soybeans, peas, cocoa
  42. Deficiency in magnesium?
    Tremor, spasms
  43. Functions of sulfur? Food source?
    Hair, skin, nails, general metabolicfunctionsmeats, nuts, soy, fish
  44. What are the 7 major minerals?
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Magnesium
    • Sulfur
  45. What are the 6 Trace minerals?
    • Iron
    • Iodine
    • Zinc
    • Selenium'
    • Fluoride
    • Copper
  46. Functions of iron? Food sources?

    Hemoglobin synthesis, generalmetabolism, drug detoxification in liverAnimal sources (Heme) rapid, plantsources (Nonheme) Slow
  47. Deficiency in iron?
  48. Functions of iodine? Food sources?
    Participation in thyroid glandssynthesis of thyroxineiodized salts, seafood.
  49. Deficiency in iodine?
    Goiter, cretinism
  50. Functions of zinc? Food sources?
    Enzyme constituent, immune systemMeat, seafood, whole grains
  51. Deficiency in zinc?
    Poor wound healingimpaired taste and smell.
  52. Functions of selenium? Food sources?
    Aids protection from free radicalsSeafood, kidney, liver
  53. Deficiency of selenium?
    Impaired immune function.
  54. Functions of Fluoride? Food sources?
    Prevent dental caries.Fluoridated water, toothpaste
  55. Deficiency of fluoride?
    Dental caries
  56. Function of copper? Food source
    Energy production, hemoglobinsynthesis, nerve and immune functionLiver, seafood, whole grains
  57. Deficiency of copper?
    Anemia, bone abnormalities
  58. Function of Manganese? Food sources?
    Activates reactions in urea synthesiscereals, whole grains, legumes.
  59. How is manganese toxic?
    By inhalation
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