PSYC of G Lesson 2

  1. Biological essentialism
    • ·        
    • used to explain gender differences

    • the suggestion that
    • women's lack of intrinsic ability is to blame for their underrepresentation in
    • science and engineering
  2. Maintenance of stereotypes and prejudice
    • ·        
    • tendency to focus on innate differences

    • tendency to downplay
    • social factors
  3. Lawrence Summers
    • ·        
    • contended that women's progress in scientific
    • careers has been slow because women lack the talent to succeed in science and
    • engineering

    • mentioned social
    • factors and discrimination as less important than intrinsic ability for success
    • in academic science careers
  4. Ben Barres
    • ·        
    • contended that discrimination is widespread in
    • science

    • mentioned that
    • neither men nor women want to believe that the practice is common
  5. "Science War"
    • ·        
    • debated the basic  conceptions of science and its continued
    • value in the modern world

    • gender as one of main
    • topics
  6. Modern science
    • ·        
    • started 16th century

    • ·        
    • came to prominence during 19th century

    • ·        
    • represented radical departure from traditional
    • thought

    • assumed that the
    • world works by a set of natural laws and that these laws can be discovered by
    • careful, objective investigation
  7. Empirical observation
    • ·        
    • gathering information through evidence from the
    • senses

    • rejected information
    • based on authority or presumption of supernatural powers
  8. Objectivity
    • the notion that observation is free of bias by
    • the observer
  9. Quantitative research
    • ·        
    • research that follows the procedure of
    • quantification

    • turning observations
    • into numbers
  10. Data
    • ·        
    • the numbers that represent the quantitative
    • research

    • representations of
    • some facet of the phenomenon the researcher considered important
  11. Qualitative research
    • focuses on understanding the complexity of the
    • situation
  12. Quantitative research methods
    • ·        
    • scientific information must be observable by
    • anyone

    • ·        
    • systematic observation is required - some plan
    • or system must be followed

    • ·        
    • the use of numbers to omit some aspects of the
    • situation and concentrate on only one

    • specification of a
    • variable
  13. Variable
    • ·        
    • the factor of interest in a research study

  14. Two types of quantitative research
    • ·        
    • experimental

  15. Experimental research
    • ·        
    • carefully conducted experiment

    • allows researchers to
    • draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships
  16. Descriptive research
    • ·        
    • help investigators answer "what"
    • questions

    • ·        
    • include surveys and correlational studies

    • ·        
    • include methods that overlap with qualitative
    • research

    • yield descriptions of
    • the observed phenomena
  17. Experiment
    • ·        
    • design that allows researchers to answer
    • "why" questions

    • obtains information
    • about cause and effect
  18. Independent factor
    • the one factor that is manipulated in an
    • experiment
  19. Dependent variable
    • ·        
    • measured in an experiment

    • all other factors are
    • held constant
  20. Ex post facto study
    • ·        
    • quasi-experimental study

    • a type of
    • nonexperimental research design that involves the comparison of subjects, who
    • are placed in contrast groups, on the basis of some preexisting characteristic
    • of subjects
  21. Case study
    • a qualitative method that focuses on gathering
    • extensive information about a single person or a small group
  22. Constructionists
    • a group of critics of science who argue that
    • reality is constructed through perception and is inevitably subject to bias
  23. Bias in studies
    • scientific observation that excludes science
    • from its claim of objectivity
  24. Correlational study
    • a descriptive research method that requires
    • researchers to measure two factors known to occur within a group of people to
    • determine the degree of relationship between the two factors
  25. Ethnography
    • a type of qualitative research in which the researcher
    • becomes immersed in a situation in order to make observations and
    • interpretations of that situation
  26. Focus group
    • a qualitative research method consisting of a
    • discussion involving a group of people centered around a specific topic
  27. Hypothesis
    • a statement about the expected outcome of a
    • study
  28. Interview
    • a type of qualitative study in which respondents
    • are interviewed in order to determine patterns or commonalities among their
    • responses
  29. Meta-analysis
    • a statistical analysis that allows the evaluation
    • of many studies simultaneously
  30. Objectivity
    • the notion that observation is free of bias by
    • the observer
  31. Operational definition
    •  a
    • definition of a variable in terms of operations used to obtain information on
    • that variable, rather than in terms of concepts underlying that variable
  32. Practical significance
    • ·        
    • an important result with practical implications

    • different from
    • statistical significance
  33. Qualitative research
    • research that focuses on understanding
    • complexity and context rather than distilling situations to sets of numbers
  34. Quantification
    • the process of turning observations into
    • numerical data
  35. Quantitative research
    • research that uses numerical data and
    • statistical analysis
  36. Statistically significant result
    •  a result
    • obtained by analysis with statistical tests and found unlikely to have been
    • obtained on the basis of chance alone
  37. Subject variable
    • a characteristic of the subjects, such as
    • gender, that allows researchers to form contrast groups in quasi-experimental
    • studies
  38. Survey
    • a descriptive research method involving the
    • measurement of attitudes through the administration and interpretation of
    • questionnaires
  39. Janet Shibley Hyde
    • gender similarities hypothesis
    • - meta analysis and effect size
    • - 78% of studies show negligible to small gender differences
  40. variables moderating gender differences (gender interacts with)
    • - nationality
    • - ethnicity
    • - age
    • - salience of gender roles
  41. salience of gender roles
    • -experimental situaiton
    • - social situation (first heterosexual date - becomes more salient as date more and become more comfortable)
  42. salience
    • how important a gender role is
    • - how it comes about in certain situations
  43. neuroscience and gender
    -imaging studies provide glimpse into structure and function of brain
  44. brain plasticity
    the change of a brain by influences from environment and hormonal influences
  45. *brain structure/function behavior relationship is correlational
    • behavior shapes your brain
    • your brain shapes your behavior
  46. specialization
    different areas in the brain are specialized for different functions
  47. lateralization
    The idea that the left and right sides of the brain can control many different aspects of behavior in different categories
  48. culture
    a unique meaning and information system, shared by a group, and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life
  49. cultural dimensions
    • individualism vs. collectivism (most frequently studied)
    • cultures differ on far more dimensions
    • cultural heritage may vary by situations, relationships and other contextual variables
    • cultural universals vs. culture specific differences
    • variability within cultures
  50. cultural universal
    ex: women provide child care
  51. culture specific differences
    ex: non-egalitarian cultures, women lack rights and privileges
  52. race
    • not a biological variable
    • - most people are not racially pure
  53. ethnicity
    • cultural qualities and affiliations of a group
    • - ethnic identity - white people do not have a strong ethnic identity, people of color do
    • - acculturation
    • - bilingualism
  54. cross cultural variables (global perspective on gender)
    • modernization
    • economics
    • gender equality
  55. 2001 UN Beijing Declaration
    • governmental action to address gender inequality
    • involving men and boys in social change
  56. basis of psychological research
    • logical positivism (value-free, objective)
    • empiricism (observable evidence)
  57. feminist critiques
    • western bias toward objectivity vs. subjectivity
    • overreliance on biological explanations
    • neglect of sociohistorical context
    • neglect of intersections (ex: ethnicity, class)
    • failure to consider values (ex: essentialism)
  58. characteristics of feminist psychological research
    • critiques of traditional research
    • formulation of research guidelines
    • gender as focus of study
    • striving toward gender fair methodologies
    • ex: feminist emiricism (typically quantitative)
    • ex: feminist standpoint epistemology (often qualitative)
  59. correlational studies
    • at least two variables that are not manipulated by the researcher
    • assesses the strength of relationship or association
    • correlation coefficient
  60. correlation coefficient
    • magnitude of relationship
    • direction of relationship
  61. *problems interpreting correlation
    • directionality
    • bidirectionality
    • third variable problem
  62. example of problems interpretting correlation
    • Bryant, 2008
    • study of rap music videos and male/female stereotypes
    • - positive correlation between number of videos watched and stereotyped attitudes
    • - adversarial attitudes toward gender relations
    • - other factors
  63. survey research factors
    • importance of random sampling
    • representativeness of sample a related issue
    • possibilities and pitfalls inherent in Internet surveys
    • natures of questionnaires
  64. natures of questionnaires
    • reliability
    • validity
    • framing
    • social desirability
  65. naturalistic observation
    • behavior recorded in natural setting
    • influencing participants' behavior - must desensitize children to you
    • inter-observer reliability - objective observers, higher percentage of agreement with others
    • observational definitions - definitions of the behavior; peers are strongest socializer of gender
  66. archival studies
    • content analysis of cultural "artifacts"
    • coding: themes; gender of characters; activities (women characters in video games, how are they portrayed? male vs. female presenting a product
    • inter-rater reliability (is an issue)
    • internet databases
  67. experimental methodology
    • establishment of causal relationships due to logic of experimental design (cause and effect)
    • characteristics: independent variable; dependent variable; experimental control
  68. dependent variable (measure)
    variable that is measured in the experiment
  69. independent variable
    variable manipulated by experimentor
  70. experimental control
    each group is treated exactly the same
  71. random assignment
    each individual has the same chance of being assigned to a group (equates the two+ groups from the beginning)
  72. sex differences and correlation
    *all sex differences are correlational in nature*
  73. comparison of quantitative designs (use chart in ppt)
    • correlational studies
    • surveys
    • naturalistic observation
    • archival studies
    • experimental methodology
  74. common qualitative methodologies
    • case study
    • interviews
  75. case study
    • single case, individual, or group
    • rich description
    • poor generalization
  76. interviews
    • semi-structured (questions with follow up on answers)
    • open-ended (more qualitative and open to interpretation)
    • participant contributes to interpretation (go back and ask interviewee if interpretation is correct
    • Lisa Diamonds
  77. discourse analysis
    • dialogue w/ participants embedded in social context
    • - as much in natural context as possible
  78. narrative analysis
    • - embedded in participants' life course
    • - may be developmental in nature
    • - life history, change over time
  79. common interview analytic techniques
    discourse and narrative analysis
  80. case study characteristics
    an in-depth history of one or a small number of participants
  81. case study advantages
    provides in-depth analysis of rare cases
  82. case study disadvantages
    generally not generalizable
  83. interview characteristics
    semi-structured or open-ended questions usually administered face to face
  84. interview advantages
    • participants provide meaning and interpret their experiences
    • multiple perspectives
    • rich amount of data
  85. interview disadvantages
    • reflexivity may be difficult to negotiate
    • authenticity may be a concern
    • large amount of data to be summarized
  86. cross-sectional studies (developmental research)
    • assess age differences; compare two groups of different ages
    • two or more groups, one time of measurement
    • age-cohort confound (year of birth, generation = aged group born at that time)
  87. longitudinal studies (developmental research)
    • assess age change; one group at different times
    • one group, many times of measurement
    • participant mortality/ability to continue (motivation, death)
    • may not be able to generalize to other cohorts
  88. ethnicity of interviewers and raters* (cross-cultural research)
    very important to match the ethnicity*
  89. cultural universals and differences (cross-cultural research)
    • Rehman-Holtzworth-Monroe, 2006
    • marital dissatisfaction related to withdrawal from conversation (universal)
    • European-American wives, Pakistani husbands made demands
  90. meta-analysis
    • cut down to the question: "what does it mean?"
    • quantitative literature review
    • importance of considering gender differences and similarities
    • nature of gender difference
  91. nature of gender difference (meta-analysis)
    • difference between group means statistically significant
    • on average, women and men differ on dependent variable
  92. importance of considering variability and overlap
    • variability = spread of scores
    • individual differences often larger than group differences
    • d = (Mmale - Mfemale)/s
    • s: variability
  93. steps in meta-analysis
    • 1. conduct literature search; PsycINFO and other databases
    • 2. collect all published papers; collect all unpublished papers
    • 3. compute Cohen's d; average ds across studies
    • = #: effect size
  94. Summary of meta-analyses
    • so few variables show large gender differences
    • ex: mathematics anxiety, talkativeness, helping
  95. use of meta-analysis
    • identification of effect size
    • identification of moderator variables
    • limitations
  96. identification of effect size (use of meta-analysis)
    • d = .20: small
    • d = .50: moderate
    • d = .80: large
  97. limitations (use of meta-analysis)
    • quality of study should be variable in analysis
    • no cause-and-effect relationships can be implied
  98. biases in research
    • research topic/question
    • research design
    • data analysis
    • interpretation of results (heterosexism, anthropomorphism, ethnocentrism)
Card Set
PSYC of G Lesson 2
Psychology of Gender Lesson 2 Notes