1. Define implicit and explicit memory.
    Implicit memory is non-declarative or retention without remembering. This is demonstrated in procedural types of tasks and involves simple skills or conditioning. It relies on motor memory.

    Explicit or declarative memory is described as the conscious effort in order to recall something or something that can be verbalized. It’s related to facts. In addition to fact memory, explicit memory can be divided into two categories: abstract and episodic memory.
  2. What is consolidation? What happens physiologically during consolidation?
    The process of taking short term memories and making them long term memories is called CONSOLIDATION. Consolidation includes: newly synthesized mRNA is delivered to axons and dendrites, dendritic spines change in shape, unique extracellular proteins are deposited in the synapses engaged in LTM, presynaptic terminals increase in size and number, and more neurotransmitters are released. Consolidation occurs in the temporal lobe of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus and amygdala.
  3. Define muscle group
    multiple muscles working together to perform a specific action
  4. Define muscle
    a number of muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue
  5. Define fascicle
    bundle of muscle cells within a muscle
  6. Define muscle fiber
    an individual cell in which contraction occurs
  7. Define myofibril
    contractile fibers that contain proteins within a muscle cell
  8. Define sarcomere
    The arrangement of myofibrils within a muscle cell. It is the functional unit of contraction and where all the mechanical events occur.
  9. What are the Z disks, the thick and thin filaments?
    Z-lines (Z disks) are structures that anchor the thin filaments and the titin of the thick filaments. They form the structural border for each sarcomere.

    Thin filaments are made of actin and connected terminally at Z lines or Z disks. There are 2 thin filament-associated proteins called Tropomyosin and Troponin.

    Thick filaments are made of myosin. They have the appearance of two golf clubs twisted together. The heads are the myosin proteins and the tails are the shafts of the golf club twisted together. The thick filaments are anchored to Z lines by a protein called titin.
  10. What proteins are found in the thick and thin filaments?
    • actin, myosin
    • (tropomyosin, troponin - associated w/thin filaments)
  11. What 2 proteins bind to pull the crossbridge towards the center of the sarcomere?

    What protein blocks this binding process between contractions?
    • During contraction, myosin binds to the active sites of actin.
    • Each tropomyosin molecule is blocking the binding position on actin for myosin.
  12. The 2 “raw ingredients” necessary for muscle contraction are _____ and ______
    calcium & ATP
  13. What regions of the sarcomere change during contraction?
    I band, A band, H zone
  14. Do the filaments change in length during muscle contraction?
  15. Define NMJ
    The junction of an axon terminal with the motor end plate
  16. What neurotransmitter does skeletal muscle contraction rely upon?

    What type of receptor is found on the skeletal muscle?
    The axon terminals of a motor neuron contain vesicles similar to the vesicles found at synaptic junctions between 2 neurons.The vesicles contain Acetylcholine.The region of the muscle fiber plasma membrane (sarcolemma) that lies directly under the terminal portion of the axon is known as the motor end plate. Nicotinic (cholinergic) receptors for skeletal muscle are found here. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter for muscle contraction, so it makes the cell more positive and closer to threshold.
  17. Describe the T tubules and the arrangement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum within a muscle fiber/cell
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) forms a series of sleeve like segments around each myofibril. Transverse Tubules (T-tubules) surround each myofibril, continuous with the sarcoplasm surrounding the muscle fiber. It is the lateral sacs, or terminal cisternae, that lie along the T-tubules that will release the calcium into the sarcoplasm.
  18. Describe muscle twitch vs. tetanus.

    Which produces maximum force possible for the muscle cell?
    A twitch is the brief contraction of all the muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single action potential.

    Unfused tetanus – When there are multiple stimulations resulting in increasing but wavering contraction. (Not enough frequency of stimulation for a continuous contraction).

    Fused tetanus – When there is approximately 90 stimulations per second this will result in a sustained contraction (not wavering as in unfused). This gives the ability for more force production.

    Tetany – maximum force a muscle fiber can produce
  19. How is force production altered moment to moment from the nervous system?
    Tensile force (strength of a muscle contraction) depends on number of fibers contracting in unison (motor unit recruitment) AND the frequency of the stimulations.
  20. What happens when someone engages in endurance or strength exercises – what changes are seen?

    What happens when someone is inactive and not using muscles?
    Cardiovascular Endurance Training leads to: increased # mitochondria and an increased capillary network in muscle groups trained. Strength training leads to: increased fiber diameter (hypertrophy) due to more actin/myosin produced (more in myofibrils)
  21. What are the 3 ways a muscle fiber can form ATP?

    Understand how long each one can supply ATP and which ones produce more ATP/less ATP

    Which one requires oxygen?

    What do the other 2 pathways use to help create ATP?

    Can you think of activities that use each of them?
    • 3 ways a muscle fiber can form ATP:
    • 1) Creatine phosphate (CP)
    • maximum muscle power for about 10 seconds
    • ATP formed is limited by concentration of creatine in the cell (1:1)

    • 2) glycolytic pathway in the cytosol (anaerobic glycolysis)
    • Used briefly after CP – then will convert to aerobic IF Oxygen is available
    • 2 stores of glucose for glycolysis: 1) Blood stores of glucose or 2) Glycogen stored within the muscle fiber

    • 3) Oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria (aerobic respiration) 
    • ongoing provided oxygen is present
    • 36 ATP per glucose
  22. What effect does lactic acid have on the muscle?

    Is it what cause muscle soreness a day or two later?
    Lactic acid changes acidity within the muscle from accumulation (end product of anaerobic respiration). It makes the environment unfavorable for energy production.

    Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is thought to be due to micro-trauma’s of individual muscle fibers
  23. What is oxygen debt? 
    A muscle continues to consume increased amounts of oxygen for some time after it has ceased to contract. Heavy breathing, increased heart rate are all contributing to repaying your oxygen debt.
  24. How do the type SO (IA), FOG (IIA) and FG (IIB) fibers differ?
    • Slow Oxidative (SO/IA) Fibers
    • These fibers are small diameter and dark red in color from their high myoglobin content. (Myoglobin store oxygen in the muscle). SO fibers have many mitochondria, mainly use aerobic respiration, and are very resistant to fatigue. Their contractions are considered “slow”.

    • Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic (FOG/IIA) Fibers
    • FOG fibers are intermediate in diameter. They also have a lot of myoglobin. They have many mitochondria, use both aerobic and anaerobic (glycolysis) metabolism and are resistant to fatigue (but not as much so as the SO fibers). FOG fibers have moderate glycogen stores and their contractions are “fast”.

    • Fast Glycolytic (FG/IIB) Fibers
    • FG fibers are large in diameter and contain most myofibrils. They are the most powerful and have very rapid contractions. They have a low myoglobin level, few mitochondria and mainly use anaerobic (glycolysis) metabolism. They fatigue quickly and have large glycogen stores. FG contractions are the most “rapid” and “powerful” of all the muscle fiber types.
  25. Which muscle fiber type is most resistant to fatigue, which least resistant?
    SO most resistant to fatigue

    FG least resistant to fatigue
  26. Which fiber is better equipped for short duration, high intensity motor activities?
    FG (fast glycolytic)
  27. Which fiber is better equipped for long duration, lower intensity motor activities?
    SO (slow oxidative)
  28. Pyramidal vs. Extrapyramidal Systems
    Which is responsible for fine motor control, faster movements, distal musculature?
    Which is for more coarse (gross) motor control, slower movements, proximal musculature?
    Which system involves the cortex?
    Which the brainstem?
    • pyramidal
    • extrapyramidal
    • pyramidal
    • extrapyramidal
  29. How does the cerebellum work to control motor movements?
    It doesn’t initiate movements but it can compare actual movement with intended movement and adjust and coordinate as necessary.
  30. What are the 3 stimuli the cerebellum integrates to maintain control/balance?
    • vision
    • vestibular
    • proprioception
  31. What happens if the cerebellum is damaged? (what type of tremor)
    intention tremor - tremors when performing voluntary motor movements
  32. How does the basal ganglia work to control motor movements?
    They receive inputs from all structures of the cerebral cortex and they project to the motor cortex and therefore have an influence on motor movements. For example, they inhibit antagonistic or unnecessary movements so that things happen smoothly. The basal ganglia will modify and inhibit much of the motor information being generated in association with specific movements to help “fine tune” them.
  33. What happens if there is a basal ganglia lesion?
    • RESTING TREMOR not intention like Cerebellar
    • CHOREA sudden irregular jerky movements without purpose
    • ATHETOSIS slow writhing movements
  34. What is athetosis?
    slow writhing movements
  35. What is Ataxia?
    uncoordinated, wobbling gait
  36. What neurotransmitter and brain region is involved in Parkinson’s disease?
    Parkinson’s Disease occurs in the Substantia nigra area in Caudate Nucleus when there is decreased dopamine secreted and decreased activation of the motor cortex. It results in decreased and slow movements, rigid muscles, resting tremors, hunched posture, and limited arm movement with walking.
  37. Describe the flow of signals in the pyramidal system
    (roles of the premotor, primary motor, pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts, proprioception, visual and vestibular sensory info and the basal ganglia/cerebellum)
  38. What would be affected if the premotor cortex was damaged?
  39. What would be affected if the primary motor cortex was damaged?
  40. If a person displays an intention tremor, ataxia and had a hard time maintaining balance- this suggests what?
  41. If a person displays swaying with their eyes closed but no intention tremor or balance difficulty when eyes open – this suggests what?

    What test is this called? what does it test?
  42. What is the basic function of the endocrine system?
  43. What other system works closely with the endocrine system?
  44. Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine
  45. Understand the terms hormone, paracrine, autocrine
  46. How do lipid soluble and water soluble hormones differ in terms of communication?
  47. What is a secondary messenger and why are they important?
  48. Which reacts faster typically – water soluble or lipid soluble hormones?
  49. What are some of the ways that hormone alter cellular activities – i.e. what types of things can they initiate to happen within their target cells?
  50. What relationship does the hypothalamus have with the anterior pituitary gland?
    What relationship does it have with the posterior pituitary gland?
  51. What is the hypophyseal portal vein and where does it start/stop?
  52. What is a tropic hormone?
  53. Posterior Pituitary Gland
    What type of tissue is it made of and where is it located?
    What 2 hormones does it secrete (where are they manufactured)?
  54. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    Where is it located?
    Does it work in conjunction with the posterior pituitary?
    Understand what hormones the anterior pituitary secretes and what other hormones they influence
  55. What is the hypothalamic pituitary axis (diagram in lab book)
  56. Understand what ACTH, GH, TSH are and how their feedback loops work
  57. What does FSH/LH, PRL do and where do they act upon?
  58. What is basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
  59. What factors affect your BMR?
  60. Thyroid Gland
    Where is it located?
    What mineral is required for thyroid hormone production?
    How do thyroid hormones affect cells?
    What additional functions does the thyroid gland have besides metabolic?
  61. What hypothalamic and pituitary hormones regulate thyroid hormone secretion?
  62. Describe the feedback loop that prevents excess thyroid hormone secretion?
  63. What happens to the thyroid hormone and TRH secretion if a person received a large dose (injection) of TSH?
  64. What is hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism? Understand symptoms of each
  65. Adrenal Glands
    Where are they located?
    Adrenal glands are located on the top portion of each kidney
  66. What are the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex? Which hormones does each produce?
    • adrenal medulla
    • -inner part of the gland
    • -neural tissue
    • -produces catecholamines (epi- & norepinephrine)

    • adrenal cortex
    • -bulk of gland (outer several layers)
    • -endocrine tissue
    • -produces glucocorticoids (cortisol) & mineralcorticoids
  67. What are the functions of cortisol in the body?
    • -protein breakdown
    • -increase use of glucose & triglycerides for energy
    • -anti-inflammatory / help regulate pain
    • -maintain BP & proper renal function
  68. Which pituitary and hypothalamic hormones control cortisol secretion?
    ACTH (ant. pituitary) & CRH (hypothalumus)
  69. What role does epinephrine and norepinephrine have with the response to acute stress?
    • 'fight or flight' response
    • -increased HR & BP
    • -increased blood flow to heart, liver, muscles
    • -bronchodilation
  70. Which aspect of the ANS controls release of epi and norepi?
    sympathetic ANS - adrenal medulla of adrenal gland

    released in response to acute stress
  71. Growth Hormone
    From what gland is it secreted?
    What are the functions of GH in the body?

    Understand the influence of GH on itself (feedback)
  72. How does GH affect glucose in the blood?
  73. What hormones increase GH production at puberty?
    What other hormones affect GH production?
  74. Which hormones are secreted when Ca++ is low? Which when it is high?
    PTH released when Ca++ is low

    Calcitonin released when Ca++ is high
  75. How do PTH and calcitonin work to regulate Ca++ levels in the blood?
  76. Where are the 3 hormones that regulate blood sugar?
    How does each regulate blood glucose?
    growth hormone (GH), glucagon, insulin
  77. Where is insulin and glucagon produced?
    • Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas
    • -Alpha cells - glucagon
    • -Beta cells - insulin
  78. What is hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia?
    hypoglycemia - low blood sugar

    hyperglycemia - high blood sugar
  79. Define diabetes mellitus, how does it differ in type I and type II, and how are they each treated.
    diabetes mellitus - polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, abundance of glucose in urine

    • Type I
    • -insulin dependent
    • -decline in or destruction of beta cells - autoimmune
    • -typ. childhood diagnosis

    • Type II
    • -non-insulin dependent (generally)
    • -insulin resistance due to over-flooding of glucose
    • -adult or childhood diagnosis
    • -can be controlled w/ diet, exercise, & meds
  80. From what gland is PRL secreted?
    What controls PRL secretion (which stimulate and which inhibit)?
    secreted from anterior pituitary

    • stimulated by: TRH, OT, VIP, seratonin
    • inhibited by: dopamine
  81. Oxytocin
    Where is it produced / which gland secretes it?
    Describe its role in lactation (how does it differ with PRL)
    produced in hypothalamus, secreted by posterior pituitary

    • OT released in response to suckling, promotes ejection of milk from the breast
    • (PRL released to stimulate milk production)
  82. Define systole and diastole
  83. What is happening in the atria and the ventricles during atrial systole?
  84. Explain blood flow into and out of the heart chambers during each phase of the cardiac cycle?
  85. What are the 2 phases of ventricular systole?
  86. What are the 2 phases of ventricular diastole?
  87. When does most ventricular filling occur?
  88. What creates the first 2 heart sounds?
  89. What is a murmur?
  90. Explain the function of the following anatomical structures:
    SA node, AV node, bundle of His, left and right bundle branches, purkinjie fibers

    Which is considered the pacemaker?
  91. When does the signal transfer from the atria to the ventricles?
    How do the action potentials rapidly distribute to the ventricles?
  92. Why is there a delay at the AV node?
    What is it allowing to happen?
  93. What does sinus rhythm mean? Ectopic rhythm?
    What happens if it originates somewhere other than the “pacemaker”?
  94. What events on the heart cause P wave, QRS complex, T wave?
  95. An extended PR interval is referred to as a what block?
  96. An elevated ST segment and an inverted T wave is a sign of what? Is it reversible?
  97. A deep Q is a sign of what and is it reversible?
  98. What is bradycardia/tachycardia?

    What rhythm leads to the need to “shock” a patient?
  99. Define what cardiac output is (what 2 parameters are part of determining CO)
  100. How can CO be increased by the autonomic nervous system?
    How can CO be decreased by the autonomic nervous system?
  101. What factors regulate stroke volume?
  102. How do thyroid hormones affect cardiac output?
  103. What 2 cardiovascular parameters directly influence blood pressure?
    cardiac output and peripheral resistance
  104. Define systolic and diastolic blood pressure
  105. What is pulse pressure?
  106. What receptors monitor blood pressure? Where are they found?
  107. Where in the brain is the control center for BP?
  108. If there is a sudden increase or decrease in BP, how does the body adjust?
  109. What are the 3 factors that affect vascular resistance?
  110. How does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway influence BP?
  111. How does epi/norepi, ADH and ANP affect BP?
  112. Describe the effects of the sympathetic nervous system and metabolites from the active muscles during dynamic exercise.
  113. How does BP and blood flow change during dynamic exercise?
  114. Describe the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on static exercise. How does it differ from dynamic?
  115. What are the effects on BP and blood flow during static exercise?
  116. What are the long term effects of dynamic and static exercise? What affect does this have on resting HR?
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