Etruscan and Roman Art (part 2)

  1. Image Upload 1
    • Herakles and Telephos
    • Era: 4th Style - Intricate, 70 CE
    • Location: Herculaneum
    • Techniques:
    • high play of light and shadow on Herakles, painting sculpture
    • more rounded figures with more realistic forms
    • mix of figures that don't relate
    • center figure - personification of Arcadia
    • Herakles is the dark skinned figure
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    • Augustus of Primaporta
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 20 BCE
    • Location: Villa of Livia, Primaporta
    • Techniques:
    • copy of broze orginial
    • took dimensions and style from Doryphorus by Polychightus
    • individual head
    • reliefs on the cuirass depict important diplomatic victory (Parhtians captured the Roman military standard from the Republican general and it depicts the return of the standard)
    • allegory - females represent the different provinces
    • insignia of the division on the flag
    • wrapped in Roman toga
    • arm outstretched - iconographic symbol of speaking to a group of people
    • youthful idealized emperor
    • figure of cupid riding on a dolphin at his feet shows divinely inspired laws - propaganda (supposedly the Julians, his family can  trace ancestry back to Venus)
    • 6'6" tall
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    • Portrait Bust of Livia
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, early 1st century BCE
    • Location: Faiyum, Egypt
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • imperial women also had eteranlly youthful traits
    • she was an extremely respected woman - height of fashion- coiffure - hair is rolled over forehead and bun at the top of the nec 
    • blemish free, silky smooth skin
    • sharply defined features - Greek sculpture of goddess
    • multiple versions - same face each time but a different  hairstyle 
    • out lived Augustus by 15 years
    • 13.5" tall
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    • Ara Pacis Augustae
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 13-9 BCE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques
    • made of marble
    • dedicated by Augustus to Livia for her birthday
    • altar of peace
    • commemorate the pacification of Spain and the Gauls
    • acantus temdrels that adorn the walls made of acanthus leaves
    • bucrania and medallions also used
    • hanging garlands are victory
    • bucrania mean offering to the gods
    • 35' wide
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    • Tellus Relief
    • Era: Roman Early Empire
    • Location: Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • seated woman with two lively babies - myth of Rome and its founding and represents Rome's current wealth and power
    • Tellus is also Roma and she is the goddess of Earth
    • allegories
    •    - Pax - peace
    •    - Ceres - goddess of grain
    •    - Venus - goddess of love
    •    - all in one figure
    • epitamizes the Pax-Romana - Augustus' era of peace
    • represents bountiful earth in full bloom - animals living in harmony
    • other two women are allegories of the breezes
    • earth, sky, and water elements that represent peace and fertility
    • plant life done in low relief - creates recession into space and so does shawls blowing the wind, billowing rounded form cloth
    • 5'3" tall
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    • Procession
    • Era: Roman Early Empire
    • Location: Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • kind of a frieze
    • Augustus and his family in a civic procession
    • wearing toga attire
    • faces are different - individuality based on bust portraiture
    • recession into space due to different levels of relief
    • garments are realisticly depicted by being deeply undercut to create a high play of light and shadow
    • children present - promoting family - propaganda
    • moral exemplar further his political and social agenda
    • 5'3" tall
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    Image Upload 8
    • Imperial Forum
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 46-117 CE
    • Location: Rome
    • Techniques:
    • made of imported marble
    • every emperor had their own forum
    • center of politics, marble city of Rome
    • Augustus creates a city of marble by getting rid of stone
    • everything is close because they would walk everywhere
  8. Image Upload 9
    • Masion Carree
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 1-10 CE
    • Location: Nimes, France
    • Techniques:
    • pseudo-peripteral temple
    • larger than Foruna Virils
    • corinthean columns
    • created to represent solidity, organization, and stability
  9. Image Upload 10
    • Pont du Gard
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 16 BCE
    • Location: near Nimes, France 
    • Techniques
    • subtle propaganda - subjugation is good for you - better lives for everybody
    • powerful mechanism - 100 gallons for each person per day
    • 30 miles away
    • 3 tiers of staggered arches
    • aesthetic and practical
    • quicker sense of rhythm on top
    • each arch is 82 feet wide on bottom
    • each stone is two tons
    • created out of drywall
    • water flowed only on top
    • slightly decline - used gravity for continuous flow of water
  10. Image Upload 11
    • Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater)
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 70-82 CE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • multiple arenas
    • the site was Nero's palace
    • "Collasus" statue of Nero portraying him as a sun God  - got its nick name
    • completed by Titus
    • games in there for 100 days straight, very costly
    • flooding of the arename? for a  naval battle
    • held together with bronze pegs and used to hold an owning for the upper level
    • each arch had a statue
    • white marble 160 ft tall
    • barrel vaulted corridors
    • represented social hierarchy
    • 68 gates to enter and entrance
    • lift people to stage from underneath
    • used all three column orders, Doric on bottom, Ionic in middle, Corinthean on top - optical illusion
    • all engaged columns
  11. Image Upload 12
    • Arch of Titus
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 81 CE
    • Location: Roman Forum, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • entrance to Roman Forum
    • brother built the arch in his honor
    • military and political victory
    • chariots could go thru the center
    • decorative and propagandistic
    • Titus' victories in the Holy Lands
    • one coffered, barrel-valutled archway framed by engaged columns
    • heavy molding just above arch
    • composite capitals - Ionic and Corinthean
    • would have been a bronze sculpture of a horse and and Titus in a chariot
  12. Image Upload 13
    • Spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 81 CE
    • Location: Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques
    • relief sculpture on inside of archway
    • Roman illusionistic art
    • procession of figures entering thru an arch
    • different levels of relief creates recession into space
    • archway in high relief and fades into the background to be low relief
    • parade down the Sacred Way
    • deeply cut stone creates a high play of light and shadow - creates movement
    • 7'10" tall
  13. Image Upload 14
    • Triumph of Titus
    • Era: Roman Early Empire, 81 CE
    • Location: Arch of Titus, Rome Italy
    • Techniques:
    • opposite of Spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem - same length and location
    • recession into space through horses done in extremely high relief spears in low relief in the background
    • each horse has a visible chest
    • horses are placed in front of the chariot - 
    • first time human figures are interacting with divine figures in human form on an official roman historical relief
    •    - vicorty is riding with Titus
    •    - valor is female guiding the horses
    •    - honor is bare-chested man
    • military success into Roman imperial virtues
    • 7'10" tall
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    Image Upload 16
    • Forum of Trajan
    • Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus
    • Era: High Empire, 112 CE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques
    • used to be a huge basilica that dominated a colonnaded open square
    • temple would have been behind basilica
    • 2 libraries
    • enter through impressive gateway
    • equestrian statue in center of courtyard surrounded by colonnades
    • basilica is foundation of churches - civic building and entrances on the long side
    • Temple of Trajan behind column
    •    - 400 by 200 ft
    •    - center roof lifted to allow light to come in through windows
    • more ornate than pompeii
  15. cImage Upload 17
    • Column of Trajan 
    • Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus
    • Era: High Empire, 106-113 CE
    • Location: Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • 128ft high
    • illustrated scroll that wraps itself around all the way to the top - 625 ft long if rolled out
    • bands are wider at top 36 to 50 inche
    • bronze sculpture of sainton top, not original
    • would have been a heroicly nude statue of the emperor on top
    • spiral staircase inside column
    • balcony on top
    • base is a tomb of Trajan - decorated with the catridation arms and armor - ashes inside the tomb
    • continuous spiral narrative frieze to commemorate the wars of Trajan
    • military campaigns of the Danube
    • figures vary in size
    • figures are slightly destorted
    • illusionism not as present because perspective is off
    • figures are stretched a little wider - better for following narrative
    • full body of soldiers and then a lot of clustered heads
    • documents the naval history
    • 150 episodes, 2500 figures
    • mostly low to medium relief to not distort as much
    • legibility increased through paint
    • not chronological - actual battles and preparing for battles
    • large figure in sea on bottom thought to be Neptune, god of the sea - divine support
    • man was responsible for themselves
    • emperor appears over and over again - propaganda - wins because of organization of armies
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    Image Upload 19
    • Markets of Trajan
    • Artist: Apollodorus of Damscus
    • Era: High Empire, 100-112 CE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques
    • commercial quarter
    • two floors
    • shops on bottom, administrative offices on top
    • series of terraces on the slope of the Quirinal hill behind it
    • power over nature
    • large groin-vaulted market plac
    • connected by stairs, ramps, and corridors
    • post and lintel stylesmade of brick and plaster
    • relieveng arch above doors, archway above second post and lintel
    • basic unit of measurement - tabaerna, single room shop with one barrel vault
    • each shop had a wide doorway to allow light to enter
    • hemisphere shaped facade
    • would've had a paved street in front of it
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    Image Upload 21
    • Pantheon
    • Era: High Empire, 118-125 CE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • "temple of all gods"
    • Hadrian may have helped in building and design
    • quintessentail use of concrete
    • dome has a 142 foot diameter
    • entrance hall is a perfect sphere
    • 8 Corinthean columns on the temple front facade
    • intersection of arch horizontal and vertical
    • orb of earth and the dome of heaven - the sphere
    • concrete at top is thinner - varies in thickness - helps to alleviate weight - dome steps out on the outside
    • coffered ceiling also alleviates weight
    • each square originally had a gilded rosette
    • very top is oculus, diameter 30ft
    • oculus allows in light
    • floor mimics ceiling
    • oculus on floor is drainage
    • geometry of the piece
    • niches in the sides with two columns each surrounded by two piers
    • ejecting porticos
    • each nich would have been a shrine for a different diety
    • based on the number 7 - 7 days of the week, 7 deadly sins etc
    • concentric squares cut in for coffered ceiling
    • Giovanni Panini designed the interior
  18. Image Upload 22
    • Insula
    • Era: High Empire
    • Techniques:
    • early form of appartment
    • built around a courtyard
    • all had balconies
    • brick faced concrete
    • bottom floors had stores
    • above were 4 floors of appartments
    • some had private toilets
    • heating system
    • no lighting but narrow light wells and courtyards
    • 90% of Rome's population housed in an insulas
    • represents what an emperor could do for you
  19. Image Upload 23
    • Marcus Aurelius Sacrificing
    • Era: High Empire, late 2nd century CE
    • Location: Arch of Marcus Aurelius, Forum, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • from his triumph arch that no longer stands
    • preforming a sacrifice in front of a temple
    • temple is very flattened, temple front facade and at the same time looking at the side
    • higher relief of the facade, low relief on the side
    • play of light and shadow in the  high relief
    • lots of detail
    • not a lot of perspective
    • people lined up instead of in a group
    • individulaism in faces and clothing
    • loss of realism because of bunching of figures
    • cow watching the sacrifice too?
    • Greek helenistic influence so many people packed in
    • 10'6" tall
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Etruscan and Roman Art (part 2)
Etruscan and Roman Art (part 2)