______ membranes line cavities that are exposed to the external environment.
The abdominal cavity is lined with a type of membrane that is classified as a _____ membrane.
The four types of stratified epithelia are:
________ tissue fills spaces between other tissues, binds tissues to one another, and consists primarily of matrix with relatively few cells.
The function of simple epithelia is to allow rapic diffusion or transport.
Which 2 tissues are described as excitable tissues because they are able to respond to outside stimuli by changing their membrane potential?
A tissue sample cut in a slant is called?
List the four primary tissue types.
An organ is composed of at least two different tissue types, joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.
The clear gel portion of the extracellular fluid (matrix) that contains water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes, and other materials is called the _____ ____.
Name the three types of muscle tissue.
_________ is a circular, dense body that forms the site of attachment between certain epithelial cells, especially those of stratified epithelium of the epidermis, which consist of local differentiations of the apposing cell membranes.
The _____ is a tough fibrous layer that covers a bone as a whole.
Four types of stratified epithelia are:
Tight junctions consist of...
1. Membrane plaques of adjacent cells anchored together; there is a space between cell membranes
2. Transmembrane cell-adhesion proteins around upper part of cell holding neighboring cells together.
3. Consist of connexons surrounding a channel leading from one cell to its neighbor.
A ___ junction is a communicating area of attachment between two cells that is formed by a ringlike connexon, which consists of six transmembrane proteins surrounding a pore.
Endocrine and exocrine are types of _____.
A _____ junction is a region in which adjacent cells are bound together by fusion of their plasma membranes, whereas a ____ junction consists of connections forming a pore.
_________ are connecting proteins.
The intercellular junction called a __________ allows the flow of ions between cells, transmitting electrical exitation from cell to cell.
______ glands are exocrine glands that secrete both serous fluid and mucin.
A muscle cell is also called a _______.
The _________ gives rise to the muscle and bone among other things.
_____ is the germ layer that gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.
______ is innermost layer of the primary germ layers.
Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm are the primary ____ layers.
A large round cell with a peripheral nucleus describes an _____.
Multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be called a ______ _______.
______ ____ are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells.
Hyaline cartilage is different from elastic or fibrocartilage because the fibers are not visible with normal stain.
siple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract is characterized by:
a rich vascular supply
Collagen fiber gives connective tissue great tensile strength.
Formation of which tissue is the first step in tissue repair?
replacement of destroyed tissue
fibrous connective tissue
Bone and cartilage matrix both contain blood vessels.
false, only bone matrix contain blood vessels.
Cellularity –composed almost entirely of cells
Special contacts – form continuous sheets
held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
Polarity – apical and basal surfaces
Supported by connective tissue –
reticular and basal laminae
Avascular but innervated – contains no
blood vessels but supplied by nerve fibers
Regenerative – rapidly replaces lost
cells by cell division
Functions - Diffusion and filtration
Present in the kidney glomeruli, lining
of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serosae
Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
Function in secretion and absorption
Present in kidney tubules, ducts and
secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface
Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei
Goblet cells are often found in this
Function in absorption and secretion
Nonciliated type line digestive tract and
Ciliated type line small bronchi, uterine
tubes, and some regions of the uterus
Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei; many contain cilia
Single layer of cells with different heights; some do not reach the free surface
Nuclei are seen at different layers
Function in secretion and propulsion of mucus
Present in the male sperm-carrying ducts (nonciliated) and trachea (ciliated)
Thick membrane composed of several layers of cells
Function in protection of underlying areas subjected to abrasion
Forms the external part of the skin’s epidermis (keratinized cells), and linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
Exfoliation – a separation of the top layers of epithelial cells –flake off
Several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped
Stretches to permit the distension of the urinary bladder
Lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra
Found throughout the body; most abundant and widely distributed in primary tissues:
Connective tissue proper
Connective Tissue – Supportive tissue
Binding and support
insulation and storage
Mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin
Varying degrees of vascularity
Nonliving extracellular matrix, consisting of ground
substance and fibers
Ground substance – unstructured material that fills the space between cells
Fibers – collagen, elastic, or reticular
Cells – fibroblasts, chondroblasts,
osteoblasts, and hematopoietic stem cells
secrete histamine and heparin
white blood cells – neutrophils& lymphocytes
phagocytes of connective tissue
fat cells – found in smallclusters in connective tissue
connective tissue proper
Fibroblasts –connective tissue proper
Macrophages – phagocytes of connective tissue
Leukocytes – white blood cells – neutrophils
Plasma cells – produce antibodies
Mast cells – secrete histamine and heparin
Adipocytes – fat cells – found in small
clusters in connective tissue
tough; provides high tensile strength – white fibers
– long, thin fibers that allow
for stretch – yellow fibers
– branched collagenous fibers that form
Collagen – tough;
provides high tensile strength – white fibers
Elastic – long, thin fibers that allow
for stretch – yellow fibers
Reticular – branched collagenous fibers that form
Interstitial (tissue) fluid
Adhesion glycoproteins – Bind tissues and