1. What are the 7 layers of the OSI model?
    • Physical
    • Data Link
    • Network
    • Transport
    • Session
    • Presentation
    • Application
  2. What is the command to see what cable is the DTE/DCE end?
    • Use the "show controllers" then what serial number.
    • - show controllers serial 0/2
  3. What order does a router boot up?
    • Post
    • Bootstrap
    • IOS
    • Startup-Config
  4. What is the Administrative Distance for RIP?
    AD = 120
  5. What is the Administrative Distance for OSPF?
    AD = 110
  6. What is the Administrative Distance for EIGRP?
    AD = 90
  7. What is the Administrative Distance for a Static Route?
    AD = 1
  8. What is the Administrative Distance for a Connected Routes?
    AD = 0
  9. What is the default holddown timer for RIP?
    Default holddown timer is: 180 seconds
  10. How often does RIP send routing updates by default?
    Rip sends updates every 30 seconds by default.
  11. What is the maximum hop count for RIP?
    Max hop count is: 15 hops
  12. What is the multicast address RIPv2 uses?
    Multicast address:
  13. What is the Feasible Successor and where is it stored?
    • This is the second best route to the destination.
    • It is stored in the Topology Table
  14. What multicast address does EIGRP send routing updates?
    EIGRP uses multicast address:
  15. What multicast address does OSPF send routing updates?
    OSPF uses multicast address:
  16. What algorithm does EIGRP use to calculate routes?
    EIGRP uses DUAL which stands for Diffusing Update Algorithm.
  17. What does "Show IP Route EIGRP" do?
    It only shows EIGRP routes in the routing table.
  18. What command will show all EIGRP neighbors?
    show ip eigrp neighbors
  19. What command will show entries in the EIGRP top0logy table
    show ip eigrp topology
  20. What command will show hello packets sent and received by adjacent routers in EIGRP?
    debug eigrp packet
  21. What command in EIGRP will show changes and updates as they occur on the network?
    debig ip eigrp notification
  22. In OSPF what is the Router ID?
    The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router.
  23. What IP address will be chosen as the Router ID (RID) in OSPF
    The Router ID (RID) will always be the highest IP address if no loopback is present.
  24. In OSPF what does the term: Adjaceny mean?
    An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates.
  25. In OSPF what does the term: Hello Protocol used for?
    The OSPF Hello protocol provides dynamic neighbor discovery and maintains neighbor relationships.
  26. In OSPF what does the term: Neighborship database mean?
    The nighborship database is a list of all OSPF routers for which Hello packets have been seen.
  27. In OSPF what is the Topological database used for?
    The topological database contains information from all the Link State Advertisement packets that have been recieved for an area.
  28. In OSPF what is Link State Advertisement?
    A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containing link-state and routing information that's shared among OSPF routers.
  29. In OSPF what is the Designated Router?
    A designated router (DR) is elected whenever OSPF routers are connected to the same multi-access network.
  30. In OSPF what is the backup designated router?
    A backup designated router (BDR) is a hot standby for the DR on multi-access links.
  31. What does NBMA in OSPF stand for?
    Non-broadcast multi-access.  
  32. What is the OSPF Process ID?
    It is a unique number on the OSPF router that is only locally signaficant.
  33. What command in OSPF will display information for one or all OSPF processes running on the router?
    show ip ospf
  34. What command will give you information about the number of routers in the internetwork plus the neighboring routers ID?
    show ip ospf database
  35. What command in OSPF displays all interface-related information?
    show ip ospf interface
  36. What command in OSPF will show information regarding neighbors and the adjacency state?
    show ip ospf neighbor
  37. What command will show what routing protocols are running on the router?
    show ip protocols
  38. What OSPF command will show hello packest being sent and received on your router?
    debug ip ospf packet
  39. What OSPF command will show the DR and DBR elections on a broadcast and non-broadcast multi-access network?
    debug ip ospf adj
  40. What must OSPF routers agree upon to become neighbors?
    • The must agree on:
    • - Area ID
    • - Authentication
    • - Hellow and Dead intervals
  41. What are the Spanning Tree Protoco statesl?
    • The states in STP are:
    • -Blocking
    • - Listening
    • - Learning
    • - Forwarding
  42. What are the 2 types of VLAN Identification Methods?
    • Inter-Switch Link (ISL)
    • IEEE 802.1Q
  43. What vlan trunking type adds a 4 byte field with the vlan info?
    802.1Q only adds a 4 byte field.
  44. What are the 3 modes for VTP, and which one is the default mode?
    • - Server
    • - Client
    • - Transparent

    Default mode is Server.
  45. What does switchport mode dynamic auto mean?
    The interface becomes a trunk interface if the neighboring interface is set to trunk or desirable mode.
  46. What does switchport mode dynamic desirable mean?
    The interface will actively attempt to convert the link to a trunk. The interface will become a trunk if the neighboring interface is set to trunk, desirable, auto mode.
  47. What does switchport mode trunk mean?
    Puts the interface into a permanent trunking mode and negotiates to convert the neighboring link into a trunk link.  The interface will be a trunk even in the neighboring interface is not a trunk.
  48. What does switchport nonegotiate mean?
    Prevents the interface from generating DTP frames.  You must manually configure the neighboring interface as a trunk to establish a trunk link.
  49. What are the 3 types of access lists?
    • - Standard
    • - Extended
    • - Named
  50. What is a static NAT?
    This type of NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mappings.
  51. What is Dynamic NAT?
    This gives you the ability to map and unregistered IP address to a registered IP address from a pool of registered addresses.
  52. What is NAT Overloading?
    This is the most popular type of NAT.  Sometime called PAT as it uses port numbers to map unregistered IP addresses to registered IP addresses with a port number.
  53. What does the term Inside Local mean?
    Name of inside source address before translation.
  54. What does the term Outside Local mean?
    Name of destination host before translation.
  55. What does the term Inside Global mean?
    Name of inside host after translation.
  56. What does the term Outside Global mean?
    Name of outside destination host after translation.
  57. What command can be used to see all the nat translation on a router?
    show ip nat translations
  58. 2000::/3 is what type of IPv6 address?
    This is the global unicast address range.
  59. FC00::/7 is what type of IPv6 address?
    The unique local unicast range.
  60. FE80::/10 is what type of IPv6 address?
    The link-local unicast range.
  61. FF00::/8 is what type of IPv6 address?
    The multicast range.
  62. What does Dual Stacking mean?
    It allows our devices to communicate using either IPv4 or IPv6.
  63. What does 6to4 Tunneling mean?
    It is useful for carrying IPv6 data over a network that's still IPv4.
  64. What are leased lines?
    There are usually refered to as a point-to-point or dedicated connection.
  65. What is circuit switching?
    Think of a phone call.  You only pay for the time you actually use. No data can transfer until and end-to-end connection is established. 
  66. What is packet switching?
    A switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. 
  67. What kind of circuit does Frame Relay operate on?
    Virtual Circuits
  68. What are the 3 types of LMI types, and what command is used to set the LMI type?
    • - cisco
    • - ansi
    • - q933a

    frame-relay lmi-type
  69. What command will show you the LMI traffic stats?
    show frame-relay lmi
  70. What command will show you a list of all configured PVCs and DLCI numbers?
    show frame pvc
  71. What command shows the network layer to dlci mappings?
    show frame map
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