What is health
- Presence or absense of a disease. A state of complete physical, mental and social.
- Someone striving tword optimal functioning.
- Sense of WELLNESS
- Persons perception.
- Medical term used by medicine
- Nursing for a disorder in the body.
- It is physical
- Somethin that can be diagnoised
- Perhapsed cured but not always
- Individualized perseption: "I have a st or ha"; "I just dont feel well today".
- Highly subjective
- Can have a illness without a disease or can have a disease without illness.
- A state of a perons physical, emotional, interlectual, socaial or spiritual is deminished or impaired.
- Individualized perseption "I want to dance"
- Felling of wholeness and functioning at ones potential at all aspects.
- Experence is measured
- Decisions made everyday about health.
- Ex did you choose to eat a breakfast knowing that it is the important meal of the day or excersise or set on the couch.
- State of well being
- Self Responsibility an ultimate goal, dynamic, growing process.
- The whole being of the individual.
With in a person, spiritual factor, intellegance delevemental stage, emotions that can influence on how healthy that person is.
- Outside, what is the the enviroment-Is it healthy?
- Are you far from a medical resource. Finances? and social class?
- Family dynamics-do they get routine exams?
- Do they wait and go to the ER when sx's are bad?
- How does their peer group deal with the illness.
- Individual lifestyles-do they sit out in the sun??
Human needs model (Maslow)
- Lower level is the most important; it is the physiological state.
- ************always remember ABC***************
Always be open to what the client is feeling as well.
Continumm models of health
deals w/ concept of health as it truely exsists from high level wellness to death.
Travis's illness-wellness continumm
What is it and what does it say
- One big arrow
- Left-premature dealth (disability, symptoms, and signs) Right-up to high level of wellness.
- Top of arrow all the way across-wellness
- Middle is the neutral point
- Bottom half way is the treatment arrow.
What is the neutral point of the model
- No discernible illness or well ness
- (think of the Army girl that got hurt)
What does the Travis illness-wellness continuum tell us
- The patient could be ill and at the same time orient tword wellness
- Physically healthy and at the sametime function from the illness mentality.
Theories of health belief--what does it tell the nurse??
Clients perceptions of the health and illness-nurses can provide more meaningfull assistance to help them maintain regain or attane a state of health
Locus of control
- What you believe about life usually influences health
- Internal" Do you control your health"?
- Enternal: "Do you believe that something else of a higher power controls your life" Such as genes or "A God".
Ex: Im going to die at 40 because all my uncles died at 40 or I can't stop drinking because my mom did not stop drinking.
Beckers health belief model 1974
Why some people maintain health and treat illness while others fail to protect themselves mostly preventing a disease and illness.
- Individual perception
- Ex: 15 year old girl-sexual active does not believe that she can get a std. You friend laughes at it. She does not see the reason to use a condom or protection.
- Modifing factors: peer pressure and age-will greatly influence how she feels about the illness and the seriousness.
- Cues to action: Wake her up to the serious of things: mass media campaigns, advise from others, postcard from physicians, illness of friend, family, newspapers.
- Likelihood of action: Percieved benifits prevenative action-barriors hard to get to office or embarressed.
- Well she get the help or not????
Penders health promotion model
- Assumptions of people, their behaviors, nature of health, the goal of health promotion:
- Health promotion al directing a clients well being
- ************Promoting Wellness*************
- * Individual characteristics and experiences
- *Behavior specific congnitions and affect
- *Behavioral outcomes
- Ex: 50yr hyperlipid needs to start exerc. Must concider
- 1)Prior related behavior before, is this a pattern?
- 2) personal factors: culture, family routine, psych, What will help him undertake this?
- 3) Whole relm of influences will he do it or not?
- Health promoting behavior
- Nurse can collect data from the chart and intervene w/the client and help him change his life.
Holistic health model of nursing
- Clients are the ULTIMATE experts able to guide their own health: if they have the info from the nurse.
- Nurses strive for this.
Nurses interventions for holistic health
- Dont ignor emotional factor with the physical
- Dont ignor the spiritual in favor of the interletual
- Conplementary: use nursing care with medical care to improve patients health
Alternatives to Holistic health
- Therapy: herbal, music, relaxation, touch
- Its broad can be used in all stages of health and illness.
Ok stands? 2009 united health foundation
- 49th health practices
- #1 health practices
- 38% smoke but has come down
- 31% obese
- 40% ex. reg.
what can nurses do
- Nurses must be involved not only preventing disease but promoting health.
- Educate people.
- Encourage people to be responsible for taking control of their health
- Inc. concepts of wholeness, wellness, well-being, and lifestyle changes.
- Program that modify enviroment and individual behaviors.
- EX: 45yr old feels healthy but has high cholestrol and does not ex. needs health promotion.
National health campaingns?
- Healthy people
- 1970's vision for nations health.
- Goals are created on the fed level every decade and public health agencies at all levels of gov work to meet them.
- State, city, and local to meet these goals.
Eat better move more don't smoke
Major goals for "healthy people 2000"
- Increase quality and yrs of healthy life in indivi.
- Eliminate health disparities
- Ex: Certain pop. lets give them equal access to medical care.
- Increase vacciness, reduce obesity, low cancer death rates, and low htn.
health promotion level 1
- interventions aimed at decreasing probability of specific illness or dysfunction.
- Aimed at healthy people!!!!!!
- Ex: prenatal pills, adult starts ex program, vacciness, exams.
health promotion level 2
- Early dx and prompt treatment of illness
- Persons who are experiencing or at risk of experencing health problems and are at risk of developing complication.
- EX: per exp thrist and freq urination: pcp does a bs: dx w/dm. EARLY TX: Recognizing the disease and starting tx such as nutrition and demostrating bs test.
- EX: family breast cancer: get a mammo.
- May have the disease but tx before it gets worse.
Health promotion #3
- Focused on minimizing the effects of permanent and irreversible disease or disability.
- Ex: emphazyma-avoid worsening the disease. No going out in the cold. Stay away from crowds-worried about infecitons.
- Ex: CHF- weight everyday and call nurse if any descripincies with weight.
How does the nurse help client move twords wellness
- Help client identify that there could be risk factors in their lifestyle even if they are not feeling unhealthy.
- Were is the client at??
Client is not thinking of changing their lifestyle in the next 6mo.
- Knowledge to the problem.
- Thinking about changing the in the next 6 mo
- May not be ready to commit.
- Immediate action w/in a month
- Usually making small behavior changes
- Buying self help books
- Actively implements behavior and conginitive strategies of the action plan. Adapt new behavior
- Great Commitment
- Strives to prevent relapse.
- Adopting new behavior.
- Stage last until no tempations usually 6mo to 5yrs.
- Longer than 6mo
- leading health problem for older adults and children
- Physicial changed that affects functioning (maybe in more than one dimintion)
- Btw mulitfunctioning or life threatening relapse.
- Can not be cured.
- Short term problem
- Can affect the patient life-emotional, spiritual, physical.
- Sx's may be adrupt but then subside
- Might be cured.
Illness Behavior (Internal)
- How a person thinks about illness and how that influences them or weather internally.
- Is the sx's disrupting their routine?
- Sx's life threatening?
- Do I believe I'm in control of my health
- How do my peer group deal with my illness?
- Do I accept this "sick role" or do I accept health care?
- Sx's visible to others?
- Culture recognize my sx's as a illness
- Should I delay treatment b/c I can't afford it?
- HC confusing?