1. present
    • ar: o as a amos áis an
    • er: o es e emos éis en
    • ir: o es e imos ís en
    • cuando + habitual action
  2. Present Progressive:
    • action in progress
    • estar + -ando or -iendo/yendo
  3. Preterite
    • ar: é aste ó amos asteis aron
    • er/ir: í iste ió imos isteis ieron
    • state verb came to an end
    • action in progress when interrupted: interrupting action
    • tell a story or relate past events
  4. Imperfect
    • Saying what you used to do (habitually or repeatedly)
    • ar: aba abas aba ábamos abais aban
    • er/ir: ía ías ía íamos íais ían
    • ongoing states
    • action in progress when interrupted: action in progress
    • describes background of story.
  5. Imperfect Irregulars:
    • Only 3
    • ir: iba ibas iba íbamos ibais iban
    • ser: era eras era éramos erais eran
    • ver: veía veías veía veíamos veíais veían
  6. Present Perfect:
    • Saying what you have done.
    • present tense of haber, followed by past participle (ado or ido)
    • have you ever?
    • have or have not done.
  7. Haber present tense conjugation
    He, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han
  8. Polite Commands
    • change -ar endings to -e; -er endings to -a. To more then one person, add -n.
    • Irregular stem in yo form in present tense, usually same irregularity in command.
    • pronouns attatched to +, precede -
  9. Softening Commands
    Present subjunctive following querer que or sugerir que
  10. Present subjunctive
    • ar: -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
    • er/ir: -a, -as, -a, -amos, áis, -an
    • pronouns attatched to +, precede -
    • cuando + future action
    • verbs ending in -oy in yo form and saber have irregular stems
    • based on: e>ie or o>ue stem, keep except in nos/vos
    • based on: e>i, keep for all
  11. Imperfect Progressive
    • past action in progress. taking place at some momen in the past.
    • imperfect tense of estar + present participle
  12. Informal commands
    • singular +: same as he/she in present
    • informal -: add -s to usted command form
    • vos +: change final -r to -d
    • vos -: use subjunctive.
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