What is the term used to describe the imbalance of health between different groups of people, that is avoidable and unfair?
Define Health Equity
Distribution of disease, disability and death in such a way as to not create a disproportionate burden on one population; health for all that is targeted towards those at disadvantage.
What illness and disease do poor people around the globe suffer from?
- Maternal / perinatal conditions
- Infectious / communicable diseases (eg measles, tetanus etc)
What diseases or illness do the people in developed countries suffer from?
- Cardiovascular Disease
- Violence and injuries
What factors contribute to health inequity?
- Access - to education, health care, land
- Government policy
- Living conditions
The infant mortality rate in Iceland of 2 per 1000 births compared to 120 to 1000 births in Mozambique is an example of what?
How can health inequity be measured?
- Quantitatively - epidemiology data
- Qualitatively - Social determinants of health, quality of life, description of environmental factors
How can epidemiology be used to measure health inequity?
- Comparing health status data
- Identifying causes of disease
- Describing patterns in disease throughout populaitons
- Measure how many are dying and what they are dying from
Which social determinant describes inequities such as poor women dying in childbirth, women having birth unattended by trained persons and infant mortality?
What is maternal mortality?
The death of a pregnant woman. Most common in poor parts of the world.
"The world's richest consume 80% of the world's food"
This is an example of what?
Social determinant of food and global inequity.
How does the Social Determinant of work impact on health status and inequity?
- Work related injuries or disease impacts health status.
- Developing countries do not have laws to protect workers so they work long hours, in unsafe environments and are not provided safety equipment.
What is chronic disease?
- Disease that builds up over time or takes a long time to heal or control.
- More common in rich countries, eg. Cancer, Obesity
What is the Health System?
Differing roles within the levels of government (federal, state and local) together with private service providers. Work to deliver health services and facilities for the public.
What is a health care setting?
- Doctor consultation
- Hospice / Home care
What are the 3 core functions of WHO?
- Normative - creating norms and standards or acceptable beahviour
- Directing & Co-ordinating - Leadership over NGO's, health sectors & regions. Give direction and guidance.
- Research - disease eradication, emergency response, social determinants, epidemiology
What does WHO do?
- Promotes development
- Fosters health security
- Stengthens health systems
- Monitor the global health situation
- Enhance partnerships
- Improve performance
What does mobilising groups mean?
- A community-wide effort to address health, social or environmental issues. Community members getting together to facilitate change.
- Getting groups of people to take action and make a stand.
What are the Social Justice principles?
- Supportive Environments
What is relationship building?
The process of fostering a relationship so you can work together toward a common goal. Built by mutual understanding.
What is a culturally competent health setting?
- Provides language services
- Supports individuals to value cultural sensitivity
- Encourages a broader view of and respect for different cultures
- Support community development and healthier living environments
What does Distribution mean when studying epidemiology data?
The frequency of a disease and the pattern of the disease over time or within a population.
What is critical analysis?
The use of explicit, transparent methods to assess data. Interpreting the evidence considering validity, results and relevance.
How do you develop an argument?
- Choose your position
- Choose evidence
- Orgnaise your ideas
- make relationships between evidence, data and viewpoints
- Examine the logic of your argument
Why do poor countries have high rates of malaria or dengue fever?
- Lack of infrastructure
- Over crowding of populations
- Displaced people or refugee camps
- Environmental - over farming or water
- Lack of health care services
What are four types of need?
Explain the relationship between health literacy and health status.
- Causal - quality of health literacy can determine level of health status.
- Positiveley correlated - as health literacy increases or improves so does health status.
Identify two environment factors that influence the health behaviour of cultural groups.
- Geographic location
- Access to social networks.
Identify three health issues impacted by the influence of culture on health decision-making.
- Blood transfusions
What is plagiarism?
The practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.
What is a hypothesis?
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.