1. What are CHONPS elements? 
    CHONPS are the building blocks of most biological molecules
  2. What elements is CHONPS composed of?
    • Carbon (C)
    • Hidrogen (H)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Sulfur (S)
  3. What is an Atom?
    Is the smallest particle that exhibits the chemical properties of an element
  4. What are the parts of an atom?
    An atom is devided into 3 subatomic particles:

    • Protons (+)
    • Neutrons (no charge)
    • Electrons (-)
  5. What are Isotopes
    • Note: Prefix "iso" means equal, same.
    • Note #2: Isotopes share the same chemical characteristics but have different atomic masses

    They are different atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons, but different number of neutrons
  6. What are Ions?
    They are atoms or groups of atoms with either a positive charge or a negative charge
  7. Ions that are positively charged are called?
  8. Ions that are negatively charged are called?
  9. Give at least 3 examples of positively charged ions?
    • Sodium (Na+)
    • Potassium (K+)
    • Calcium (Ca+)
    • Magnesium (Mg+)
    • Hydrogen (H+)
  10. Give at least 3 examples of negativevely charged ions?
    • Chloride (Cl-)
    • Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
    • Phosphate (PO3/4-)
  11. What's the physiological funtion of Sodium?
    • Conduction of electrical signals in neuron and muscles
    • Cotransportation of substances across plasma membranes
    • Most important in osmotic movement of water (BP)
    • Most common extracellular cation
  12. What's the physiological funtion of Calcium?
    • Hardness bones and theet
    • Muscle contraction
    • Exocystosis
    • Blood clotting
    • Second messenger on hormonal stimulation of cells
  13. What's the physiological funtion of Potassium?
    • Role in glycogen storage in liver and muscle
    • Funtion on pH balance
    • Conduction of electrical signals in neurons and muscles
    • Most common extracellular cation
  14. What are the water physiological functions?
    • Regulates body temperature
    • Cushions
    • Transports
    • Lubricates
    • Neutral pH
    • High surface tension
    • Universal solvent
  15. What is the diffentese between organic and non-organic molecules?
    The only main difference is that organic molecules are molecules that contain Carbon as to non-organic molecules do not contain Carbon.
  16. What are the four classes of organic biological macromolecules?
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic acids
    • Proteins
  17. What are the basic molecules of carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  18. Give some examples of Monosaccharides.
    • Glucose (hexo)
    • Isomers (hexo)
    • Galactose (hexo)
    • Fructose (hexo)
  19. What are the basic molecules of Lipids?
    • Tryglicerides
    • Phospolipids
    • Steroids
    • Eicosaniods
  20. What are the basic molecules of Nucleic Acids?
    • Ribose (pento)
    • Deoxyribose (pento)
  21. What is the main function of Carbohydates?
    To provide energy to the cell in to form of sugars that are broken down into glucose for consumption and glycogen for storage.
  22. What is the main function of Lipids?
    Depending on their base molecules they can serve many purposes like long term energy storage (tryglicerides), major componet in membranes including cell walls probiding a hydrophobic barrier (phospholipids), take part of major roles on the lymphatic system (steroids) or the creation of inflamation due to immunologic respond (eicosanoids)
  23. What is the main function of Proteins?
    The cell scientists estimate that more than 10,000 different proteins, that serve a vast array of funtions including:

    • Catalys
    • Defense
    • Transport
    • Support
    • Movement
    • Regulation
    • Storage
  24. What is the main function of Nucleic Acids?
    Is to store and transfer genetic or hereditary information in cells.
Card Set
TEST 1 Chp 2