1. Catalase
    catalyzes decomposition of H2O2 (toxic to organisms) to H2O + O2
  2. capsule
    polysaccharide outer layer of variable serotype; Inhibits chemotaxis by macrophages and phagocytosis by PMNs
  3. teichoic acid
    mediate attachment of staph to mucosa via fibronectin
  4. fibronectin
    glycoproteins on cell membrane that functions as adhesive like molecule; 

    elicits specific antibody response when bound to peptidoglycan
  5. Protein A
    • binds to immunoglobulin receptor to prevent antibody-mediated immune
    • clearance of organism
  6. Coagulase
    protein clumping factor; converts fibrinogen to fibrin
  7. Cytoplasmic membrane
    anchorage for cellular biosynthetic and respiratory enzymes
  8. Alpha toxin
    forms pores in lipophilic regions of RBCs, WBCs, hepatocytes, etc
  9. Beta Toxin
    hydrolyzes sphingomyelinase in membrane phospholipids
  10. Gamma Toxin
    made of 6 toxins (including PV leukocidin, which is not leukotoxic) that produce hemolysis and lysis of WBCs through pore formation
  11. Delta Toxin
    nonspecific toxicity that disrupts membranes by a detergent-like mode; surfactant properties
  12. Exfoliative toxin
    ETA and ETB; serine protease enzymes that catalyzed decomposition of cell adhesion structure that forms intercellular bridges; results in shedding of skin
  13. Enterotoxin
    heat stable and acid resistant superantigen related to food poisoning
  14. Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1
    superantigen that activates T cells leading to cytokine production and inflammation
  15. Hyaluronidase
    hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid (the glycosaminoglycan present in connective tissue)
  16. Fibrinolysin
    “staphylokinase”, catalyzes dissolution of fibrin (clot)
  17. Lipases
    • hydrolyzes lipids allowing survival of organism in sebaceous areas of
    • body
  18. Nucleases
    thermostable marker that hydrolyzes DNA
  19. Penicillinase
    a beta-lactamase that confers resistance to many staphs through plasmids
  20. Staphylococcus Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)
    • Ritters Disease; epithelia desquamation indicated by positive Nikolsky’s
    • Sign; bullae negative for microorganisms
  21. Bullous Impetigo
    SSSS with negative Nikolsky’s sign; fluid positive for microorganisms
  22. Food Poisoning
    • toxin-induced, self-limiting gastroenterititis (nausea, vomiting,
    • diarrhea, no fever)
  23. Enterocolitis
    febrile diarrhea with colonic white plaques and ulceration; caused by treatment of broad-spectrum antibiotics that kill normal flora
  24. Toxic Shock Syndrome
    febrile, hypotensive response that involves a diffuse maculare erythrematous rash, purpurea fulminans, toxemia, and skin desquamation
  25. Pustular Impetigo
    maculopapular pediatric pustular skin infection, also produced by streptococci
  26. Folliculitis
    pyogenic infection of hair follicle; "Acne/pimple"
  27. Furuncles
    “boil”; extension folliculitis; large painful nodules with collection of PMNs and necrotic tissue
  28. Carbuncles
    coalesced furuncles that extend into deeper subcutaneous tissue; causes sinus tracts
  29. Wound Infection
    post trauma or surgical; erythema, edema, pain, pus; antibiotic treatment unnecessary unless there is fever
  30. Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
    deep skin structures, surgical intervention, uderlying disease
  31. Bactermia
    bacteria in the blood
  32. Septicemia
    multiplicaiton of microorganisms in the circulating blood (pyemia, septic fever, blood poisoining); predisposes to endocarditis
  33. Acute endocarditis
    rapid onset of nonspecific symptoms; CO decreases and septic emboli form peripherally; drug abuser – tricuspid valve
  34. Aspiration pneumonia
    aspiration of oral secretions in young and old pts and pts with cystic fibrosis, flu, COPD, and bronchiectiasis; characterized by empyema
  35. Hematogenous pneumonia
    circulates through blood and ends up in lungs; from bacteremic and endocarditis pts; characterized by empyema
  36. Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in children
    febrile, sudden onset of localized pain over affected bone; involves metaphysea area of long bones
  37. Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Adults
    usually vertebral; fever, intense pain; Brodie’s Abscess may occur
  38. Brodie's Abscess
    Sequestered focus of osteomyelitis in metaphyseal area of long bone only in adults
  39. Post-surgical or Post-trauma osteomyelitis 
    purulent drainage from wound or sinus tract of area overlaying bone; inflammation
  40. Septic arthritis
    • occurs in children and adults (abnormal joints, intra-articular
    • injections); pain, erythema, aspiration or purulent material, most common in large joints
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